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By: Sebastian Eusse Lombo 7.4 World History II Rafael Giraldo.

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1 By: Sebastian Eusse Lombo 7.4 World History II Rafael Giraldo

2 Constantinople was once the great capital of the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire which lasted for more than one thousand years from the fall of Rome 476A.D. to the Ottoman siege led by Mehmed II in It stood on the Bosporus at the point between Europe and Asia Minor and also between the Mediterranean and the black sea. The city stood as a symbol of wealth, power and spiritual guidance for Eastern Orthodox Christians. In 1453 it remained as the vestige of ancient Byzantium, not yet conquered by the Turks. Present day it is better know by its Turkish name of Istanbul. The Ottoman siege of the City of Constantinople was one of the greatest sieges of all time because in less than two months the Ottomans destroyed the once mighty Byzantine Empire which had lasted more than 1000 years.

3 Mehmed II establishes his camp out side the land wall early April Bridges across the outer moat are burnt by the Byzantines On April 9 th the Ottoman admiral Baltoghlu Pasha makes an unsuccessful attempt to break through the boom erected by the defenders across the Golden Horn On 12 th of April, the Turks begin bombarding the Theodosian Walls. The artillery fire continues for six weeks After sunset 18 th April, Mehmed launches an attack on the Middle Wall, the Byzantines repel them. On April 20 th Baltoghlu fails to defeat a fleet of Italian ships sailing to Constantinopl e with grain supplies. On the night of 28 th April Mehmed, moved part of his fleet over land into the Golden Horn. Constantinople is now fully blocked. The Venetians and Genoese begin to fight among themselves. On may 7 th the Turks make a night attack but no advance is made. On may 18 th the Byzantines burn the Turks siege tower in a night raid. By may 23 rd underground tunnels are eliminated. At 01:30 on May 29 th the final attack comes. The Turks find a small gate Kerkaporta open, the Genoese began to flee, the city is overrun.

4 The Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire stood as a great point for knowledge, commerce, spiritual guidance for Eastern Orthodox Christians and laws. Fallowing a combination of Greek and Roman ways, and laws, the empire lasted for more than 1000 after the fall of Rome. The empire was founded by Constantine the First or Constantine the great. Constantine Founded, the City of Constantinople was founded on the ancient Greek settlement of Byzantium, on the Bosporus on the Sea of Marmara.

5 Many leaders of the Byzantine empire hoped to revive the glory and power of the Roman Empire. The Emperor Justinian I, who ruled from A.D. 527 to A.D.565, led the Byzantines in this revival.(Holt, 222) Justinian conquered much of the land lost to Germanic tribes, like the kingdom of the Vandals in Northern Africa, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoth's in Italy and present day Granada in Spain, once again the empire extended from Spain to Syria. Justinian made great achievements in law, architecture, and art. One of his greatest achievements was the creation of the Justinian code, a collection of Roman laws which develop the basis of Byzantine law. (Holt,222)

6 After the death of Justinian the empire started a slow decline. The Empire suffered from many wars against the Persians in the East, the Lombards, settled in Italy, the Avar and the Slavs invaded the Balkan peninsula. The Muslim Empire conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt and much of North Africa.(Holt, 228). By the 1000 A.D. the Seljuk Turks threatened the empire. The Europeans Started a crusade against the Turks. On the fourth crusade the Europeans turned their backs on the city and conquered it in in A.D the Byzantines finally recaptured Constantinople, but it never regain its former strength.

7 Like many tribes the Ottomans were a tribe running from the Mongols. The tribes united under Osman I, the name Ottoman comes from his. “During the 1300 A.D. the Ottomans took over large part of Anatolia. Eventually they move to Europe. They tried to capture Constantinople but failed”(Holt,432). Instead of conquering Constantinople, they capture Adrianopolis, made it their capital and renamed it to Edirne. On 1422 the Ottomans under sultan Murad II, sieged Constantinople but also failed. After this lost, the Ottomans signed a truce with the Byzantines that would last until 1453.

8 The Ottomans Conquered much of Anatolia or Asia Minor and eventually went to the Balkan peninsula seeking more territories. Led my Murad I the Ottomans invaded the Balkans in the early 1300 conquering much of Greece and southern Bulgaria. They also tried to conquer Constantinople but failed instead they conquered Adrianopolis which they used as capital from

9 The first Ottoman soldiers were the ghazis, or warriors of Islam. Ottomans used an elite infantries in all of their battles called Janissaries. Janissaries were young war captives and Christian slaves from Europe.”First they were schooled in Islamic laws and converted to Islam, then trained as special soldiers.”(Holt 432). The Ottoman were also the first to use gun powder on a giant cannon called Great bombard. Some of these were used in the attack of 1453.

10 Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus, lived from , he became emperor when his brother, John VIII Palaeologus, died in 1448, Constantine became emperor in He tried to re establish the military forces of the empire but failed. Sultan Mehmed II, lived from , he became sultan two times, one from but his father took control of the empire. After his fathers death he became emperor form Mehmed was an ambitious man, who made war with his neighbors until his death.

11 Ottoman Turks (estimated) Regular infantry: 68,000 Janissary infantry: 12,000 Bashi-bazouks militia: 20,000 Ghazis (Islamic volunteers): 20,000 Total: 120,000 Christians Defenders (estimated) Byzantine Greeks: 7,000 ‘Foreigners or Latin's´ (Italians, Catalans & other European Volunteers): 5,000 Total: 12,000

12 On early April 1453 Mehmed II establishes his camp out side the land wall. For the next two months the siege continues with constant firing and battering to both the Theodosian and the sea walls. Mehmed also tries to break through the defenses of the Golden Horn but this also fails. On April 20 th Italian aid from the cities of Genoa and Venice. The Turks continue their siege with frontal attacks, night raids, underground tunnels, and wall bombarding. However this do not work.

13 Mehmed II started his siege of Constantinople in early April 1453, with and army of 120,000 men against a defender force of 12,000. However by May 29 th he only had the 12,000 Janissaries. At 01:30 Mehmed launches a final assault, his troops find a small gate, Kerkaporta, open. Mehmed rushes as many troops as he can inside of the city. The Italians begin to flee due to their commander Giustiani Longo had been hurt. Constantine XI was killed in the fight defending the city. Mehmed finally won the battle.

14 After Mehmed's victory, Mehmed gave permission to hiss troops to loot the city. The city is looted taking many sacred Eastern Orthodox relics. Most of the citizens were sold into slavery. Mehmed moved the capital from Edirne to Constantinople, the name didn´t change until the founding of the republic of Turkey after WW1. The church Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. The lost of Constantinople was a great lost of faith for the Eastern Orthodox, Moscow took the place as head of the Orthodox church. The Venetians and the Genoese lost some territory they had in the Balkans but gain all of the byzantine trade, by gaining this more economy was flowing into the Italians and this helped trigger the Renaissance. Power also swift, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, all power went east. When Constantinople falls power swifts back to the west to Spain, France, England, Portugal, Netherlands, and Italy.

15 1.Constantinople 5April-29 May 1453, Martin Dougherty, July Constantinople the historical inheritance of Istanbul, Stéphane Yerasimos, Great Battles, Christer Jorgensen, Holt World History Ancient World


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