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Helium-3 Fusion Matt Treske 3/19/2012. Why is it important to look into nuclear fusion? -From 1980 to 2007, total world energy demand grew by 66% -By.

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Presentation on theme: "Helium-3 Fusion Matt Treske 3/19/2012. Why is it important to look into nuclear fusion? -From 1980 to 2007, total world energy demand grew by 66% -By."— Presentation transcript:

1 Helium-3 Fusion Matt Treske 3/19/2012

2 Why is it important to look into nuclear fusion? -From 1980 to 2007, total world energy demand grew by 66% -By 2030 it is projected to grow another 40% (1.5%/yr) -Over 70% of demand by developing countries – Mainly China and India

3 -From 1980 to 2007, total world energy demand grew by 66% -By 2030 it is projected to grow another 40% (1.5%/yr) -Over 70% of demand by developing countries – Mainly China and India Why is it important to look into nuclear fusion?

4 Breakdown of Sources

5 Potential Solutions -Renewable Energy -More responsible use of fossil fuels -Nuclear Energy

6 Public Concerns about Nuclear Energy Radioactive releases Radioactive reaction products Proliferation of weapons-grade material Can these fears be alleviated?

7 What is Nuclear Fusion? Process by which two or more atomic nuclei are joined together to form a single, heavier nucleus Fusion of nuclei with masses lower than iron will generally release energy

8 Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

9 Binding Energy The difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons is called the mass defect. The binding energy of a nuclide can be calculated from its mass defect with Einstein's equation that relates mass and energy. The mass defect of an atom reflects the stability of the nucleus. It is equal to the energy released when the nucleus is formed from its protons and neutrons. The mass defect is therefore also known as the binding energy of the nucleus.

10 Binding Energy Example: Helium Atom Masses of Subatomic Particles Proton = 1.0072765 amu Neutron = 1.0086650 amu Electron = 0.005486 amu Predicated Mass of Helium 2 (protons) * 1.0072765 amu = 2.0145530 amu 2 (neutrons) * 1.0086650 amu = 2.017330 amu 2 (electrons) * 0.005486 amu = 0.0010972 amu Total Predicted Mass = 4.0329802 amu

11 Predicted Mass = 4.0329802 amu Observed Mass = 4.0026033 amu Mass Deficit = 0.0303769 amu 2 (protons) * 1.0072765 amu = 2.0145530 amu 2 (neutrons) * 1.0086650 amu = 2.017330 amu 2 (electrons) * 0.005486 amu = 0.0010972 amu Total Predicted Mass = 4.0329802 amu Binding Energy Example: Helium Atom

12 Mass Deficit = 0.0303769 amu = 5.04428 E -29 E = mc 2 = (5.04428 E -29 ) * ( 2.9979246 E 8 ) 2 = 4.53358 E -12 E = 4.53358 E -12 = 28.3 = 2.730 E 12 Binding Energy in 1 kg of Helium atom Binding Energy Example: Helium Atom

13 Energy Density Comparison Binding Energy of Helium = 6.821 E 14 Energy released by 235 U fission = 1.921 E 12 Energy released from burning of gasoline = 4.72 E 7 Energy released from burning of coal = 3.1 E 7 28.3

14 How to perform fusion Need to force two nucleons to combine and create a new nuclei - Process known as Nucleosynthesis Takes immense energy to force nuclei to fuse – the positive charges of nuclei repel one another At thermonuclear temperatures, they can overcome electrostatic repulsion and get close enough for the attractive nuclear force to achieve fusion Result is an exothermic process with a very high energy barrier

15 Temperatures Necessary for Fusion Deuterium-Deuterium fusion: 40 E 7 K Deuterium-Tritium fusion: 4.5 E 7 K Interior of the Sun: 1.5 E 7 K

16 Reactor Types How do we reproduce those conditions here on earth? Magnetic Confinement - Tokamaks Laser Inertial Confinement Inertial Electrostatic Confinement

17 Tokamak – Magnetic Confinement Confines plasma (ions and electrons) in the shape of a torus with magnetic fields Initial temperatures achieved through ohmic heating (resistive) Most mature method

18 ITER – International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Experimental tokamak reactor intended to produce 500 MW electricity (50 MW input) for 50 minutes. Located in Cadarache, France First plasma expected ~2019 Funded by: -EU -India -Russia -China -South Korea -Japan -United States

19 Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Accelerates fusion material radially inward by applying a voltage difference between the grids Very simple design Can accelerate ions to high voltages with relative ease making it preferable for higher energy barrier reactions Has yet to produce anywhere near a breakeven point

20 Fusion Materials Deuterium ( 2 H or 2 D) -One proton and one neutron -Stable isotope -Abundant– 2 D obtained from heavy and semi-heavy seawater Tritium ( 3 H or 3 T) -One proton and two neutrons -Radioactive isotope (12yr half-life) -Rare on earth – US has about 75kg (2005) Helium-3 ( 3 He) -Two protons and one neutrons -Stable isotope -Extremely rare on earth

21 Fusion Reactions – 3 Eras 1 st Generation: D-T Fusion 2D2D 3T3T n + 14.1MeV 4 He + 3.52MeV

22 2D2D 3 He 4 He + 3.67MeV p + 14.68MeV 2 nd Generation: D- 3 He Fusion Fusion Reactions – 3 Eras

23 3 He 4 He 2 protons Total 12.9MeV 3 rd Generation: 3 He- 3 He Fusion Fusion Reactions – 3 Eras

24 Nuclear Energy Conversion Efficiencies From NEEP533 Lecture 25 Fall 2001

25 Advantages/Disadvantages of First Generation Reaction High energy neutrons can damage reactor walls and create radioactive material High number of neutrons created Relatively low electrical efficiency Can be run at lower temperatures Deuterium is common 2D2D 3T3T n + 14.1MeV 4 He + 3.52MeV

26 Requires Helium-3 Higher operating temperature Side reactions create radioactive waste High electrical efficiencies (70%) Low radiological hazard and nuclear waste 2D2D 3 He 4 He + 3.67MeV p + 14.68MeV Advantages/Disadvantages of Second Generation Reaction

27 Requires Helium-3 Very high operating temperature High electrical efficiencies (70%) No radiological hazard or nuclear waste 3 He 4 He 2 protons Total 12.9MeV Advantages/Disadvantages of Third Generation Reaction

28 Research at UW-Madison Fusion Technology Institute -Two reactors in the lower floor of ERB -IEC helium-3 fusion research -First identified the existence of large amounts of obtainable 3 He fusion fuel

29 Where is Helium-3 Found? Helium-3 is a non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron -Primordial nuclide that escapes earth’s crust in extremely low concentration -Product of Tritium decay (12yr half-life) If you knew how much 3 He someone had, you knew how much tritium and how many nuclear weapons they had Remnants of nuclear weapons testing of the 1960s

30

31 γ-ray 3 He

32 Video: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/37961-sci-trek- helium-3-fusion-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/37961-sci-trek- helium-3-fusion-video.htm

33 Lunar Surface Regolith Loose layer material covering the moon’s surface Result of billions of years of meteoroid impacts Estimated 4-5m thick in mare area (10-15m in highland) Concentration of helium-3 ~ 10 ppb as opposed to earth (5ppt)

34 There is 10 times more energy in the Helium-3 on the moon than in all the economically recoverable coal, oil, and natural gas on earth. Can we mine it? 40 tonnes of 3 He would have provided all of the electricity consumed in the US in 2000. Kulcinski 2004 Based on existing energy consumption, about 100 tonnes of helium 3 could potentially power the Earth for a year. Discovery 2009

35 UW-Madison ideas for harvesting lunar 3 He Helium-3 evolves from regolith at around ~700°C Mark II miner

36 Applications of volatile by-products from lunar mining Fuel Cells – H 2 and O 2 Life Support – N 2 O 2 H 2 O and CO 2 Propulsion – H 2 O 2 and 4 He

37 The United States Manned space program ended by current administration Had intention of astronauts back to the moon by 2020 New focus on unmanned space programs “Manned space flight is a spectator sport, having about the same relation to science that intercollegiate football has to education.” Steven Weinberg, 2010 [Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979] ”I believe we can send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth. In order to do that we’re actually going to need some technological breakthroughs that we don’t have yet.” Barack Obama, 2010

38 “We are planning to build a permanent base on the moon by 2015 and 2020 we can being industrial-scale delivery… of the rare isotope helium-3” - Nikolai Sevasyanov, 2006 [head Energia space corporation] “China will make a manned moon landing around 2017. We will provide the most reliable report on 3 He to mankind” - Ouyang Ziyuan, 2005 [head Chinese Lunar Exploration Program] "Helium-3 can be used in fusion reactors to meet the energy needs of the world in future. India will definitely have a claim over Helium-3 by virtue of Chandrayaan-1 mission“ - Prof G Yellaih, 2008 [Senior astronomer]

39 Future of Nuclear Fusion Develop fusion technology to become net positive in energy return -Eliminate one of the greatest barriers to public acceptance of nuclear power—the concern for radioactive waste, release, and proliferation of weapons grade material -Space propulsion -Hydrogen production

40 50 year comparison (well, 60) Questions?

41 Fusion material properties: Allen Jiang, Allen_-_Moon_Fueled_Nuclear_Fusion.pptx PhD Student | King’s College London | Robotics Tritium Material Properties: http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/tritium.pdfhttp://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/tritium.pdf Argonne National Laboratory, EVS China Helium-3: http://inventorspot.com/articles/chinas_upcoming_moon_mission_seek_out_helium3_fusion_fuelhttp://inventorspot.com/articles/chinas_upcoming_moon_mission_seek_out_helium3_fusion_fuel China.new USA Helium-3: http://news.discovery.com/space/return-to-moon-plan-scrapped.htmlhttp://news.discovery.com/space/return-to-moon-plan-scrapped.html DiscoveryNews India Helium-3: http://syedakbarindia.blogspot.com/2008/10/chandrayaan-1-india-joins-helium-3-race.htmlhttp://syedakbarindia.blogspot.com/2008/10/chandrayaan-1-india-joins-helium-3-race.html Syed Akbar Journalist Design of a Lunar Volatiles Miner: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf UW FTI – NEEP 533 Lecture 14 Spring 2004 Fusion Fuel Cycles: http://www.visionofearth.org/industry/fusion/fusion-fuel-cycles-what-they-are-and-how-they-work/http://www.visionofearth.org/industry/fusion/fusion-fuel-cycles-what-they-are-and-how-they-work/ Ben Harack, Vision of Earth Significance of Helium-3 Fusion: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture26.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture26.pdf UW FTI – NEEP 533 Lecture 26 Spring 2004 Fly Me to the Moon: http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/44253http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/44253 Timothy Birdnow, Canada Free Press Harvesting Helium-3 From the Moon: http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-031306-122626/unrestricted/IQP.pdfhttp://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-031306-122626/unrestricted/IQP.pdf Nikolaos K. Kazantzis, WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Race to the Moon for Nuclear Fuel: http://www.wired.com/science/space/news/2006/12/72276?currentPage=allhttp://www.wired.com/science/space/news/2006/12/72276?currentPage=all John Lasker, Wired Helium-3 Fusion: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/nuclear-engineering/22-012-seminar-fusion-and-plasma-physics-spring- 2006/assignments/helium3_fusion.pdfhttp://ocw.mit.edu/courses/nuclear-engineering/22-012-seminar-fusion-and-plasma-physics-spring- 2006/assignments/helium3_fusion.pdf Danny Zaterman Sources

42 Net Energy Production Image http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Annual_electricity_net_generation_in_the_world.svg/800px- Annual_electricity_net_generation_in_the_world.svg.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Annual_electricity_net_generation_in_the_world.svg/800px- Annual_electricity_net_generation_in_the_world.svg.png OECD member states: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OECD_member_states_map.svghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OECD_member_states_map.svg World Energy Consumption by region: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf16.htmlhttp://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf16.html Energy Sources Pie Chart: http://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/file/view/pie_chart.jpg/146913507/pie_chart.jpghttp://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/file/view/pie_chart.jpg/146913507/pie_chart.jpg Binding Energy Chart: http://www.mpoweruk.com/images/binding_energy.gifhttp://www.mpoweruk.com/images/binding_energy.gif Nuclear and Wind Intro Image: http://www.freewebs.com/renewableandnuclear/Nuclear%20Wind%20Sunset%20copy.jpghttp://www.freewebs.com/renewableandnuclear/Nuclear%20Wind%20Sunset%20copy.jpg Fusion Basic Cartoon Image: http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/tim/2011/06/28/DT_reaction.JPGhttp://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/tim/2011/06/28/DT_reaction.JPG Helium Atom Gold Image: http://continentalgas.com/images/Helium-atom2.gifhttp://continentalgas.com/images/Helium-atom2.gif Tokamak Cartoon: http://new.math.uiuc.edu/math198/MA198-2009/farrell1/pix/tokamak_en.gifhttp://new.math.uiuc.edu/math198/MA198-2009/farrell1/pix/tokamak_en.gif Inside Tokamak: http://www.pppl.gov/projects/pics/tftr_vv_lg.jpghttp://www.pppl.gov/projects/pics/tftr_vv_lg.jpg ITER reactor: http://iter.rma.ac.be/images/Iter.jpghttp://iter.rma.ac.be/images/Iter.jpg Simple IEC: http://iec.neep.wisc.edu/images/inerti1.gifhttp://iec.neep.wisc.edu/images/inerti1.gif Glow Mode IEC: http://iec.neep.wisc.edu/images/glow-mode.jpghttp://iec.neep.wisc.edu/images/glow-mode.jpg Risk board game: http://collider.com/wp-content/image-base/Movies/R/Risk/slice_risk_board_game_01.jpghttp://collider.com/wp-content/image-base/Movies/R/Risk/slice_risk_board_game_01.jpg Risk 2210: http://strategytheatre.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/risk_2210_game_board_01.jpg?w=600&h=450 http://strategytheatre.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/risk_2210_game_board_01.jpg?w=600&h=450 Solar System: http://chandra.harvard.edu/graphics/resources/illustrations/solsys/solar_system_ill.jpghttp://chandra.harvard.edu/graphics/resources/illustrations/solsys/solar_system_ill.jpg Radioactive Barrel: http://murrayashmole.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/radioactive.jpghttp://murrayashmole.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/radioactive.jpg Earth-Moon: http://community.greencupboards.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Earth-and-Moon-.jpeghttp://community.greencupboards.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Earth-and-Moon-.jpeg Blue map background: http://www.presentationmagazine.com/Backgrounds/business2.pnghttp://www.presentationmagazine.com/Backgrounds/business2.png Half Sun Image: http://cdn4.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/nasa-sun-spring-eclipse.jpghttp://cdn4.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/nasa-sun-spring-eclipse.jpg Grey ITER reactor: http://www.apam.columbia.edu/courses/apph4990y_ITER/ITER-CrossSection.gifhttp://www.apam.columbia.edu/courses/apph4990y_ITER/ITER-CrossSection.gif Future ITER facilities: http://www.oeaw.ac.at/euratom/Bilder/Future_ITER_buildings_and_facilities.jpghttp://www.oeaw.ac.at/euratom/Bilder/Future_ITER_buildings_and_facilities.jpg Lunar surface w/ earth in background: http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/04images/Moon7/Full_Moon/ISD_highres_AS11_AS11-44-6552Small.pnghttp://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/04images/Moon7/Full_Moon/ISD_highres_AS11_AS11-44-6552Small.png Astronauts Lounging: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf Lunar Hoist: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf Large red miner: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf Astronauts at Crater: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf Mark II Miner: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf Busy Mining: http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdfhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/SPRING2004/lecture14.pdf SR-71: http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/sr-71-ec95-42883-4.jpghttp://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/sr-71-ec95-42883-4.jpg Wright Brother’s First Flight: http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/V/7/1/WB1911Glider.jpghttp://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/V/7/1/WB1911Glider.jpg Earth/moon background: http://www.desktopwallpaperhd.com/wallpapers/29/38428.jpghttp://www.desktopwallpaperhd.com/wallpapers/29/38428.jpg Inner Fusion: http://images.psxextreme.com/wallpapers/ps3/inner_fusion_1150.jpghttp://images.psxextreme.com/wallpapers/ps3/inner_fusion_1150.jpg Tokamak thumbnail: http://www.icjt.org/an/tech/razstava/zgrazstava/slike/f4tokamak.jpghttp://www.icjt.org/an/tech/razstava/zgrazstava/slike/f4tokamak.jpg EHall statue: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/37016427.jpghttp://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/37016427.jpg Man on moon: http://www.forge22.com/wallpaper/standard/space/Apollo%2011%20astronaut%201600x1200.jpghttp://www.forge22.com/wallpaper/standard/space/Apollo%2011%20astronaut%201600x1200.jpg Crescent Moon:http://www.air-and-space.com/Moon/20061017%20waning%20crescent%20Moon%20l.jpghttp://www.air-and-space.com/Moon/20061017%20waning%20crescent%20Moon%20l.jpg Moon movie image: http://www.marty.com.au/images/stories/scifi/moon-science-fiction-movie-poster-artwork-sam-rockwell.jpg Image Sources


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