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 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-passed by Congress; authorized the President “to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack vs. the forces of.

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Presentation on theme: " Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-passed by Congress; authorized the President “to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack vs. the forces of."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-passed by Congress; authorized the President “to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack vs. the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression”-gave Johnson the ability to commit troops without ever going back to Congress and asking for a declaration of war  Tet Offensive-early 1968, a coordinated assault by the North Vietnamese Army on 36 provincial capitals and 5 major cities, as well as the U.S. Embassy in Saigon; planned to take and hold the cities until the population took up arms in their support; Americans and S. Vietnamese forces were able to repel the offensive, however, it was a devastating blow to Americans; it demonstrated the communists had not lost their will or their ability to fight; a turning point in the war  Mai Lai Massacre-1968, under pressure from Nixon to withdraw from the village, a U.S. unit shot and killed unarmed civilians, approx dead (American troops had been killed by Vietcong posing as civilians); many of the soldiers did not participate, in fact, one risked his life to stop it; tragedy was made worse by an inadequate investigation afterwards; the massacre, the coverup and the trial shocked Americans and added fuel to the antiwar fire (Life Magazine published photos); demonstrated the psychological effect of the war

4  During Nixon’s presidency ( )-the Vietnam War would continue, but the Nixon administration would reduce the U.S. presence and eventually completely withdraw U.S. forces  Policy of “Vietnamization”-reduce the burden of winning the war into the shoulders of the Vietnamese  Soon became apparent the South Vietnamese could not hold their own; U.S. engaged in bombing campaigns vs. the North to force peace talks, and while there was some success, the North was dedicated to reunifying the country under communist rule  Last American soldiers left in the spring of 1973; a little over two years later, the South would fall to the communists  Vietnam Conflict lasting from ; U.S. troops engaged from  At the height in 1968, approx. 525,000 troops would be engaged  Approximately 58,000 dead; approx. 300,000 wounded

5 China-Nixon pursued a policy of détente, or “easing of tensions” with China by making trips to Beijing in 1971 (secret) and 1972 (open) Meetings addressed issues such as limiting US support for Taiwanese independence, U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam and the fate of POW’s from the Korean War Very popular with the American people

6  Israel established: 1948 Palestine was under Turkish rule until WWI, League made it a British mandate UN General Assembly voted to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states; met with fierce opposition British mandate expired and Jewish leaders proclaimed indep. Of Israel  Suez Crisis-both Israel and Egypt argue for control, Canal important for trade  Camp David Accords: Carter Administration  1978-Israel returned the Sinai to Egypt in return for Egypt’s recognition of Israel’s right to exist as a country  Substantial foreign policy victory for Carter

7  Iran (during the Carter Administration)-Iranian Revolution  January 1979-Iran ousted a long time US ally, the Shah of Iran, in favor of an Islamic theocracy that was hostile to America  November 1979-an angry mob stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and took the diplomatic staff hostage for 444 days  A failed rescue attempt was one more in a series of blows to the Carter presidency: several helicopters broke down due to a sandstorm and lack of maintenance; another helicopter flew into a transport plane causing an explosive fire  Oil supply to the U.S. was reduced due to the Iranian Revolution

8  Reagan Administration: Iran-Contra Affair (first term and a half for Reagan was marked by recovery and optimism; this scandal would shift the popular opinion away)  1986-Reagan had authorized the govt. to support Contra rebels in Nicaragua against their govt. run by the communist Sandanistas (hoping the Contras would overthrow the Sandanistas)  When Congress voted to eliminate funding for the rebels, the Reagan Admin. Used funds it earned from selling arms to Iran to finance the Contras (shed doubt on the image of Reagan as morally virtuous)  Selling arms to Iran was deplorable for three reasons: 1. Iran was a major state sponsor of terrorism 2. The goal of the sales was to gain Iranian support for negotiating release of hostages in Lebanon; Reagan maintained a policy of never negotiating with terrorists 3. Iranian hostage crisis was still on the minds of Americans and the thought of that country receiving U.S. support was disheartening

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10  Baby boom  Levittown-was built to fill a need; Levitt and Sons perfected techniques for mass-producing housing; assembly-line houses that were built on slabs with precut lumber (cookie-cutter homes)  Interstate Highway Act-Eisenhower authorized the first federal funding of an interstate system in 1953; further legislation passed by Congress in 1956 resulted in the Interstate Hwy. Act: authorized funds to build 41,000 miles of highway/multilane expressways to connect major cities 1. eased commutes from suburbs to cities 2. boosted travel and vacation industries

11  Arms/space race: Sputnik (USSR), U.S. (Explorer)  Personal computers  Expanded use of air conditioning  Television and news coverage Civil Rights Movement Vietnam War Presidential debates: Kennedy vs. Nixon (1960) via radio: Nixon wins via television: Kennedy wins

12  1960s and 1970s: second wave of feminism, or the theory of political, social and economic equality of men and women  The Feminine Mystique-written by Betty Friedan, articulated the redefinition of women and how they are viewed; many objected to the stereotypical housewife status; some worked and wanted more opportunities  National Organization for Women (NOW)-dedicated itself to winning “true equality for all women” and to attaining “a full and equal partnership of the sexes”; set out to break barriers of discrimination in the workplace and in education

13  Latinos had long faced discrimination  Influential Latino activist: Cesar Chavez; fought for rights for farm laborers, who were among the most exploited workers in the nation; many migrated from farm to farm, state to state, laboring for long hours in deplorable conditions, with no benefits: some of the most exploited workers in the nation  United Farm Workers (UFW)-late 60s; committed to nonviolent tactics; implemented strikes and boycotts (of grapes) leading CA. to pass laws requiring collective bargaining between growers and union reps.-farmworkers had a legal basis to ask for better working conditions

14  Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring: described the deadly impact pesticides were having on birds and other animals; did more than point to the dangers of chemicals and toxic waste, she also insisted that human activity drastically altered the environment and that humans had a responsibility to protect it  Earth Day-nationwide protest; a WI. Senator wanted to force the environmental issue onto the national agenda; on April 22, 1970, close to 20 million Americans took part in Earth Day  Under Nixon, Congress created the EPA-Environmental Protection Agency in 1970; mission is to protect the “entire ecological chain”; sought to clean up and protect the environment, as well as limit or eliminate pollutants that pose a risk to the public’s health  Later acts, such as the Clear Air Act-1970 (combat air pollution limiting emissions from factories and automobiles), Clean Water Act-1973 (limit pollution of water by industry) and Endangered Species Act-1973, protecting endangered plants and animals, were passed  Global warming

15  War divides America  Draft-increasingly unpopular (Selective Service Act of 1948); drafted more than 1.5 million into military service during the War  Spread to college campuses-Kent State  Homecoming for many soldiers- bittersweet

16 IssueLiberal ViewpointConservative Viewpoint Role of govt. in the economy Favored more govt. involvement to lessen extreme economic inequalities through: Social programs (often leading to higher taxes) Govt. regulation of industry Favored limited govt. involvement in order to stimulate economic growth by: Reducing taxes Decreasing regulation of industry Foreign policyFavored international diplomacy to combat communism in other countries Favored relying on our own national defense and actively fighting vs. communism in other countries

17  1964 election, Republicans nominate AZ. Senator Barry Goldwater to run vs. LBJ  LBJ was wanting to continue his War on Poverty (train the jobless, educate the uneducated, provide healthcare for those in need)-to continue, he needed to win the election  Johnson believed the federal government could best regulate the economy and promote social justice; Goldwater maintained the federal govt. was the problem, not the solution; social and economic issues such as racism and poverty should not be addressed by the federal govt. per Goldwater  Goldwater, if elected, wanted to rein in the federal govt. by reducing its size and restricting its activities, favored tax cuts and opposed social welfare legislation and govt. spending on education, public housing and urban renewal programs  Johnson played up Goldwater’s extremism; LBJ won with a landslide victory

18  Spring of 1964; Johnson’s vision for America  Demanded “an end to poverty and racial injustice” and opportunity for every child  Programs: Medicare-basic hospital insurance for Americans 65 and older Medicaid-basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans Project Head Start and Elementary and Secondary Education Act-committed federal govt. to providing resources for individuals and schools Public radio/tv-Corporation for Public Broadcasting, combined education and entertainment for children National Endowment for the Arts-financially assisted artists, arts education and art org.

19  Warren Court-led by Chief Justice Earl Warren during the 1960s- became the most liberal in American history; supported civil rights, civil liberties, voting rights and personal privacy  Miranda v. Arizona (1966)-Court ruled that an accused criminal had to be informed of his or her 5 th and 6 th Amendment rights before being questioned (Miranda Rights)  Other key Supreme Court decisions on civil liberties and civil rights: Roe v. Wade (1973)-assured women the right to legal abortions; upheld a woman’s right to choose Bakke decision (1978)-Bakke, a white applicant to college, had been denied admission to a medical school, he claimed racial discrimination; affirmative action; quotas to increase the number of minorities (in education) are not acceptable (sided with Bakke), but race as a factor in the admissions process (college) is acceptable (didn’t overturn affirmative action)

20 Key Civil Rights leaders lost  John F. Kennedy-November 1963; assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, Texas  Martin Luther King-April 4, 1968; James Earl Ray in Memphis, TN.  Robert Kennedy-June 5, 1968; Sirhan Sirhan (Jordanian immigrant) at a rally in the California primary (after announcing candidacy for presidency) (possible revenge for America’s support for Israel in a war vs. Egypt the year before)

21 Nixon-Watergate  Nixon-narrowly wins the presidency in 1968; in 1972, entering with high approval ratings, he runs another masterful campaign  As Nixon stood before cameras on election night, 1972, he had no idea his downfall was beginning  A botched burglary of Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate Complex in June 1972 received little attention at first, but as investigators began to unravel the connections between the burglars and the White House, Watergate, came to dominate the news; the 5 men were linked to Nixon’s reelection campaign and were arrested as they tried to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee in D.C.  Burglars were tried; witnesses noted that the President and his top aides were involved in the coverup; Nixon denied any wrongdoing; two reporters played a role in unveilng the secrecy as they followed tips provided by a secret govt. informant known as “Deep Throat” (later revealed to be a top official of the FBI)  White House tapes (taping Oval Office conversations for years) would show he played a leading role in trying to coverup the break-in; He initially claimed executive privilege, but the Court ordered Nixon to turn them over  Nixon resigned before impeachment

22 Reagan-Reaganomics  Reagan and his advisors based their economic policies on the theory of “supply-side” economics  Rests on the assumption that if taxes are reduced, govt. spending will be reduced, leading to increased investment by the private sector leading to increased prosperity (jobs, production, etc.); govt. will then collect more taxes  Supply side theory reminded critics of the “trickle-down economics” of the 20s: as wealthy prospered it would trickle down and benefit the middle class and poor  To cut taxes while still balancing the budget would require Reagan reduce federal spending, such as on programs supported by both parties: cut income tax by 25% over 3 years, cut corporate taxes, etc.; cut over $40 billion from domestic programs  The economy would experience a severe recession from ; the economy rebounded in 1983

23 Reagan-Collapse of the Soviet Union -“Tear down this wall”-challenged the Soviet leader, Gorbachev, to tear down the Berlin Wall; June 1987-torn down by rebellious East Germans in 1989 (symbol of the Cold War) (1989-also the year of pro-democ. Riots at Tiananmen Square) -August 1991-hard-liners in the Soviet Union attempted to maintain communist rule, but millions of Russians, led by Boris Yeltsin, rallied to support Gorbachev, the coup fell apart -not long after, the Communist party lost power and the Soviet Union separated into 15 separate republics; Yeltsin became the new leader

24 Clinton-Impeachment  Monica Lewinsky scandal  Perjury and obstruction of justice  House of Reps. Impeached Clinton; President was acquitted in the Senate trial-1999

25 2000 Presidential Election  Election: Al Gore vs. George W. Bush vs. Ralph Nader  Gore wound up winning the popular vote  Vote margin in the electoral college was thin; although Gore received a half million more votes than Bush, victory hinged on Florida  Vote in FL. Was so close that a state law mandated an automatic statewide recount (hand recount) of votes; Dem. Argued for an additional recount because many punch-card ballots were undercounted, Rep. appealed that decision to the federal courts, Bush v. Gore, court essentially made Bush president (didn’t have time to conduct a lawful recount and violated 14 th amendment equal-protection clause); result gave Bush 271 electoral votes, one more needed to win the election


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