# J OURNAL #15 2/22/12 Use what you learned in yesterday’s lab to predict which picture shows magnetized atoms and which shows non-magnetized atoms.

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J OURNAL #15 2/22/12 Use what you learned in yesterday’s lab to predict which picture shows magnetized atoms and which shows non-magnetized atoms.

E LECTROMAGNETISM Ch. 24-25 Quiz – Formulas and Vocabulary – Wednesday, 2/29 Test – Ch. 24-25 – Friday, March 2

M AGNETS Magnets have been around for more than two thousand years. One of the earliest uses for magnets was in navigation by using compasses. Other uses include electric motors, generators, television sets, computer hard drives, and high speed trains.

B AR M AGNETS The north and south side represent to two poles of the bar magnet. Bar magnets are examples of permanent magnets. All magnets are polarized, which mean they have two distinct and opposite ends. Opposite poles attract while similar poles repel. Why?

M AGNETIC F IELDS The reason magnets attract and repel each other are due to the magnetic fields around them. Every magnet has a magnetic field around it. Magnetic field lines are similar to electric field lines. Field lines start at the north pole and end at the south pole. Magnetic field strength has units of Teslas (T).

M AGNETIC D OMAINS What happens if you break a magnet in half? The two halves will still be polarized !!! A domain is a group of neighboring atoms that have the magnetic fields of their electrons aligned in the same direction. Magnetic materials have their domains aligned in the same direction, while non-magnetic materials have domains in random directions! Non-magneticMagnetic

E LECTROMAGNETISM Electromagnetism describes the relationship between electricity and magnetism. We use electromagnets to generate electricity, store memory on our computers, generate pictures on a television screen, diagnose illnesses, and in just about every other aspect of our lives that depends on electricity. Electromagnetism works on the principle that an electric current through a wire generates a magnetic field.

E LECTROMAGNETS When DC electricity is passed through a wire, a magnetic field rotates around the wire in a specific direction. “ Right Hand Rule ”-If you take your right hand and wrap it around the wire, with your thumb pointing in the direction of the electrical current (positive to negative), then your fingers are pointing in the direction of the magnetic field around the wire.

S OLENOIDS How would we model the magnetic field in a current loop? A solenoid is a long coil of wire consisting of many loops. The more loops a solenoid has, the stronger the magnetic field.

M AGNETISM C ONVENTIONS Current: Current is represented by the letter I Left, right, up, and down are drawn by arrows Into the page or away from you is represented by Out of the page or towards you is represented by Magnetic Field: Clockwise and counter-clockwise are drawn by arrows Into the page or away from you is represented by Out of the page or towards you is represented by

R IGHT H AND R ULE P RACTICE Use the right hand rule to draw the magnetic field around the wire shown below I Current to the right Magnetic field towards you above the wire and away from you below the wire

R IGHT H AND R ULE P RACTICE Use the right hand rule to draw the magnetic field around the wires shown below II Current out of the page Counterclockwise magnetic field Current into the page Clockwise magnetic field

R IGHT H AND R ULE P RACTICE Use the right hand rule to draw the magnetic field through the wire loops as shown below I Current clockwise Magnetic field towards you outside the loop and away from you inside the loop

HOMEWORK Textbook p.665 #59, 60, 61, 64, 65

J OURNAL #16 2/23/12 Draw the magnetic field around the following 3 wires: I A)B)C) I I

E LECTROMAGNETS This magnetic field is the same force that makes metal objects stick to permanent magnets. In a bar magnet, the magnetic field runs from the north to the south pole. In a wire, the magnetic field forms around the wire. If we wrap that wire around a metal object, we can often magnetize that object. In this way, we can create an electromagnet.

E LECTROMAGNETIC I NDUCTION When a wire moves in a magnetic field, a force acts on the charges in the wire. Work is done on the charges, causing the electrons to move. Magnetic fields can induce a current in a wire! For EM induction to occur, the wire or the magnetic field needs to be moving or changing in strength.

DC M OTORS

W HAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE S PLIT - RING C OMMUTATOR ? If you look closely, you will see that it switches the flow of current half-way through the rotation of the armature. By doing so, it reverses the magnetic field produced around the armature. This reversal at the exact right moment makes the armature continue to be pushed/pulled by the forces of the magnets. The armature is a wire loop mounted on an axle (it can be a single loop, or many repetitive loops).

G ALVANOMETERS A galvanometer is a device that uses electromagnetism to measure very small amounts of current ( ~50 x 10 -6 A) The current through the wire loop creates a magnetic field The interaction between the loop’s magnetic field and the permanent magnetic field causes the loop to rotate.

G ALVANOMETER Galvanometer Galvanometer - the historical name given to a moving coil electric current detector. When a current is passed through a coil in a magnetic field, the coil experiences a torque proportional to the current. If the coil's movement is opposed by a coil spring, then the amount of deflection of a needle attached to the coil may be proportional to the current passing through the coil. Such "meter movements" were at the heart of the moving coil meters such as voltmeters and ammeters until they were largely replaced with solid state meters which have digital readouts. electric currenttorquemoving coil meters voltmetersammeters

E LECTRIC G ENERATORS The electric generator was invented by Michael Faraday and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The armature is often wrapped around an iron core. The armature is free to rotate in the magnetic field. As the wire rotates in the magnetic field, a current is induced. As the loop rotates, the strength and direction of the current change, producing an alternating current.

D IFFERENCE IN AC/DC C URRENT The difference between AC and DC has to do with the direction in which the electrons flow. In DC, the electrons flow steadily in a single direction, or "forward." In AC, electrons keep switching directions, sometimes going "forward" and then going "backward.” In the US, electric utilities use a 60-Hz frequency, meaning that the current alternates direction (forward to backward and back to forward) 60 times in one second.

T RANSFORMERS The primary voltage (on the left) induces a magnetic field in the core, which creates the secondary voltage (on the right). What makes transformers so useful is that if you change the number of turns from one side to the other, you change the voltage in the wire on the right! Transformers can change a high voltage to a lower one, or a low voltage to a higher one.

S TEP U P T RANSFORMER Step-up transformer converts a low voltage to a higher one. If you increase the number of turns on the right, the voltage coming off the transformer will increase in proportion. The right side has 4 times more turns so the voltage on the right has increased 4 times. So the voltage has been stepped up by a factor of 4.

S TEP D OWN T RANSFORMER Step-down transformer reduces voltage. If you decrease the number of turns on the right, the voltage coming off the transformer will decrease in proportion. The right side has 1/5 the number of turns, so the voltage is only 1/5 as large. So the voltage has been stepped down by 5.

T RANSFORMER M ATH The ratio of the number of turns is the same as the ratio of the voltages An ideal transformer, which we will always assume, dissipates no power (waste heat). The power of the primary circuit is equal to the power of the secondary current We use this assumption about power to find the current in the secondary circuit

F INAL T HOUGHTS ON T RANSFORMERS Step-Up TransformerStep-Down Transformer V p < V s V p > V s I p > I s I p < I s N p < N s N p > N s

W HY T RANSMIT WITH AC VS. DC Advantages to using AC: Transformers can only work using AC b/c the magnetic field has to be constantly changing in order to induce the secondary current. Due to the constant change of direction of the electrons in AC, the magnetic field is always changing as well. By using a step-up transformer to hike the voltage, we are able to lower the current and by lowering current, we are able to use thinner wires. Ultimately, we are able to transfer power farther (higher voltage travels farther), for less money (cost of wire), with better efficiency (less power lost to heat caused by resistance).

J OURNAL #17 2/27/12 The primary coil on a transformer has 100 turns and the secondary coil has 500 turns. The primary voltage is 110V and the current is 1.5 A. What type of transformer is this? What power is being used on the primary coil? What are the resulting voltage and current in the secondary coil? What is the resulting power on the secondary coil?

P RE -L AB : E LECTRIC M OTORS Purpose of Lab: Create a functional motor and modify it’s components to change it’s ability. Today you will write down the function of each piece of equipment so that you don’t have to ask questions about them tomorrow.

E QUIPMENT 4 D-cell batteries provide potential difference to the circuit containing the electromagnet The electromagnet has a sensor on the end that detects dark or clear and reverses the current alternating it’s polarity The commutator discs have different numbers of alternating clear/black edges The magnets must be arranged in the rotor in a specific pattern in order for the electromagnet to effectively “push and pull” it continuously The rotor is freely spinning on ball bearings, but the commutator discs must be firmly attached with the washer so that they don’t shift A photogate will be placed in this position so that it can measure the frequency of color changes. That information will be used to calculate the rotational speed of the disc/motor

J OURNAL #18 2/28/12 The ratio of turns on a transformer is 100 on the primary to 1 on the secondary coil. The primary voltage is 12000V. What type of transformer is this? If the resistance on the secondary coil is 100-ohms, what current is induced on the coil? If we consider this to be an ideal transformer, what power is being used on the primary coil? How do you know?

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