# Atoms and Atomic Structure

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Atoms and Atomic Structure
Unit 3 Review Atoms and Atomic Structure

1. The letter “X” in the diagram above marks the:
Location of the neutrons Region of greatest density Electron cloud Location of the protons

2. The region labeled "Y" in the diagram has a charge that is:
Positive Negative Neutral None of the above

The number of protons in the nucleus The number of electrons
3. Isotopes (such as hydrogen-1, hydrogen-2, and hydrogen-3) are atoms of the same element that differ in: The number of protons in the nucleus The number of electrons The atomic number The number of neutrons in the nucleus

4. The atomic number of an element is equal to:
A. the number of protons in the nucleus B. the number of protons plus the number of electrons C. the number of protons plus the number of neutrons D. the number of neutrons in the atom

5. The charge and mass number of an electron are:
A. charge = 0, Mass number = 1 B.   charge = +1, Mass number = 0 charge = +1, Mass number = 1 charge = -1, Mass number = 0

6. A fictitious element X is composed of 10
6. A fictitious element X is composed of 10.0 percent of the isotope X-55 , 20.0 percent of the isotope X-56 , and 70.0 percent of the isotope X-57 . Estimate the atomic mass of element X. A. 57 amu B. 57 C amu D. 56.6

7. Which of the following descriptions apply to the nucleus?
A. Dense B. Small C. Mostly empty space Positively charged All of the above A, B, and C A, B, and D

8. The letter "Y" in the diagram above marks the:
Location of the neutrons Region of greatest density C. Location of the protons Nucleus All of the above

9. The laws of electrostatics consistently demonstrate that "like" (identical) charges:
destroy one another B.   attract C.   repel

10. Which of the following is true about subatomic particles?
Electrons are negatively charged and are the heaviest subatomic particle. Protons are positively charged and the lightest subatomic particle. Neutrons have no charge and are the lightest subatomic particle. The mass of the neutron nearly equals the mass of a proton.

11. The mass number of an atom is determined by:
A. the number of protons only B.   adding the neutrons and electrons C.  adding the neutrons and protons D.  adding the protons and electrons

12. The nucleus of most atoms is made up of:
A. electrons and protons B.  protons and electrons C.  neutrons and electrons D.  protons and neutrons

13. In which of the following sets is the symbol of the element, number of protons, and the number of electrons given correctly? In, 49 protons, 49 electrons Zn, 30 protons, 60 electrons Cs, 55 protons, electrons F, 19 protons, 19 electrons

14. The _______________ constitute(s) most of the volume of an atom.
A. neutrons B.  electron cloud C.  protons D.  nucleus

15. Complete the table above:
Isotope Mass number Atomic number Protons Neutrons Electrons _______________-27 13 15. Complete the table above: A.  The blanks, respectively, would be filled: aluminum, 27, 13, 13, 14 B.   The blanks, respectively, would be filled: silicon, 27, 14, 13, 13 C.   The blanks, respectively, would be filled: aluminum, 27, 13, 14, 13 D.   The blanks, respectively, would be filled: cobalt, 40, 27, 13, 27

16. Which of the following is correct concerning subatomic particles?
The electron was discovered by Goldstein in 1886. The neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The proton was discovered by Thomson in 1880. Cathode rays were found to be made of protons.

17. All atoms of the same element share the following in common:
A. the same number of electrons B. the same atomic number C. the same mass number D. the same number of neutrons E. the same number of protons A, B, E are all correct A, B, D are correct None of the above are correct

18. Which of the following is necessary to calculate the average atomic mass of an element?
The atomic mass of carbon-12. The atomic number of the element. The relative masses of the element’s protons and electrons. The masses & relative abundances of each isotope of the element.

A. Uranium-238 has a larger electron cloud than uranium-235
19. An atom of uranium-238 differs from an atom of uranium-235 in the following way: A. Uranium-238 has a larger electron cloud than uranium-235 B.   Uranium-238 has three more neutrons than uranium-235 C.  Uranium-238 has three more protons than uranium-235 D.  Uranium-238 has three more electrons than uranium-235

20. The atomic number of an atom is determined by:
A. adding the neutrons and protons B.  the number of protons only C.  adding the neutrons and electrons D.  adding the protons and electrons

21. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Atoms of the same element can have different masses. Atoms of isotopes of an element have different numbers of protons. The nucleus of an atom has a positive charge. Atoms are mostly empty space.

22. Complete the table above:
Isotope Mass number Atomic number Protons Neutrons Electrons Lead - _______  127 22. Complete the table above: A. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 209, 209, 82, 82, 82 B. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 209, 127, 82, 82, 82 C. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 127, 209, 127, 82, 82 D. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 82, 127, 209, 127, 127

23. Which of the following accurately summarizes the isotope Argon-40?
A. 18 protons, 18 electrons, 22 neutrons B protons, electrons, neutrons C. 22 protons, 22 electrons, 18 neutrons D. 40 protons, 40 electrons, 18 neutrons

24. Complete the table above:
Isotope Mass number Atomic number Protons Neutrons Electrons Scandium-45 24. Complete the table above: A. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 45, 21, 21, 24, 21  B. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 24, 21, 45, 21, 21  C. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 21, 45, 24, 21, 21  D. The blanks, respectively, would be filled: 21, 45, 21, 21, 24

25. Which of the following was NOT among Democritus’ ideas?
Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are indivisible. Atoms retain their identity in a chemical reaction. Atoms are indestructible.

26. Which of the following is NOT a part of Dalton’s atomic theory?
All elements are composed of atoms. Atoms are always in motion. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms that combine do son in simple whole-number ratios.

27. As a consequence of the discovery of the nucleus by Rutherford, which model of the atom is thought to be true? Protons, electrons, and neutrons are evenly distributed throughout the volume of the atom. The nucleus is made of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom. The nucleus is made up of electrons and protons.

28. How is the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom calculated?
Add the number of electrons and protons together. Subtract the number of electrons from the number of protons. Subtract the number of protons from the mass number. Add the mass number to the number of electrons.

29. Chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37
29. Chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37. The atomic mass of chlorine is Which of these two isotopes of chlorine is more abundant? Cl-35 Cl-37

30. A fictitious element X is composed of 40
30. A fictitious element X is composed of 40.0 percent of the isotope X-51, 10.0 percent of the isotope X-52, and 50.0 percent of the isotope. Estimate the atomic mass of element X-53. 52.1 52.1 amu 52 52 amu

Answers 1. C 9. C 17. F 25. C 2. A 10. D 18. D 26. B 3. D 11. C 19. B 27. C 4. A 12. D 20. B 28. C 5. D 13. A 21. B 29. A 6. C 14. B 22. A 30. B 7. G 15. A 23. A 8. E 16. B 24. A