The atoms of some elements are special. Those with only one or two electrons in the outer shell, like copper, are special.
Copper Atom with its KEY electron circled. This electron is loosely held and can be pushed or pulled onto other atoms creating a static electric charge.
The movable electron makes this atom negatively charged. e Extra Electron pushed from the neighboring copper atom. What do you think can push or pull the electron?
That one electron is the key to electricity. In the 1800s, British scientist, Michael Faraday, discovered that if you move a magnet over a copper wire, the magnet will push the “special” electron in the copper and move it down the wire creating an electrical current.
By moving a magnet along copper wire, you can make the movable electron move down the wire creating electric current.
For electricity to do work, it must travel in a circuit from an electricity source to the object that will do the work, back to the source or to ground
For electricity to work, it must be able to flow from the negative pole on the battery, through whatever we want the electricity to run, back to the positive (neutral) pole on the battery or into the ground (which is also generally positively charged.) Negative poleNegative pole Positive pole - -
+ - - - The electron MUST be able to make a complete loop – a circuit.
+ - - - If there is a break in the loop ANYWHERE, the electron gets stuck – it becomes static.
Every circuit or system needs a neutral or grounding wire to allow the completion of a circuit.