Presentation on theme: "Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online Course By Roger Cram PowerPoint Presentation Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART I."— Presentation transcript:
Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online Course By Roger Cram PowerPoint Presentation Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART I
In ancient times, everyone thought that all “stuff” in the world was a made from only four elements:
In modern times, we know that all “stuff” is composed of more fundamental things than earth, water, air, and fire....
Around 1900, people knew about atoms, but believed they were tiny spheres.
Scientists soon discovered that atoms were not tiny spheres, but rather had a center called a nucleus.
Today, scientists know that the nucleus of an atom is composed of protons (p) and neutrons (n).
The electrons are negatively charged particles revolving around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons.
For every negative electron circling around the nucleus, there is also one positive proton and one neutral neutron in the nucleus. If the atom has two circling electrons, then the nucleus has two protons and two neutrons.
If the atom had 26 circling electrons, then the nucleus had 26 protons and 26 neutrons. These are called “elements,” and there are 118 different elements that we currently know about.
Of the 118 elements, the first 92 occur naturally in nature while 93-118 are synthesized. Hydrogen is first with one electron, one proton, and one neutron. Helium is second, with two electrons, two protons, and two neutrons. Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons, and eight neutrons. Gold has 79 of them, etc.
Everything we know of or can detect with our senses are made up from these elements - everything!!!!!
Different combinations of these elements merge to form compounds. Sodium and chloride are elements, but when combined (or electrically bonded) they form sodium chloride, or table salt.
Hydrogen and oxygen are elements, but when two hydrogen atoms bond with one oxygen atom, we have H2O, or water.
Are the electrons, neutrons and protons in gold the same as the ones in table salt? YES! Are the electrons, neutrons and protons in water the same as the ones in copper? YES!
You mean all of the elements that make up all things that our senses can detect are all made of the same stuff? YES YES! YES!!! YES!!!!!! YES!!!!!!!
One drop of water contains one million, million, billion atoms! HOW SMALL IS AN ATOM? If you drop a sharpened pencil, point first, onto a piece of paper, the resulting dot will have over one billion atoms.
If the combined protons and neutrons (the nucleus) were the size of a BB……., then the electrons would be 2000 times smaller or about the diameter of a human hair. HOW SMALL IS AN ATOM?
...the entire atom's diameter including electron orbits would be almost one mile across!!!!! And if the protons and neutrons (the nucleus) were the size of the a BB……..
What percentage of the volume of an atom is just empty space? 99.999999999%
This means that all “stuff” everywhere is composed of mostly empty space!!!!!
If all the atoms in the earth had their electrons, neutrons and protons touching each other, the earth would be about the size of a basketball! How small is an atom?
But this statement about the basketball is based on an old way of thinking that fails to realize electrons are really forms of energy, not marble-shaped particles.
It is believed that electrons are just a negative electric field or charge.
The Old, Outdated, Atom Model: protons & neutrons in nucleus with surrounding electron fields.
(1) Force Carrier Particles: Each type of fundamental force is "carried" by a force-carrier particle.
Force carrier particles for magnetic waves are called “photons.” Force carrier particles for gravity are called “gravitons.” We’ll talk more about these in a few minutes.
So, there are two kinds of particles: matter particles (like electrons) and particles that carry forces (like photons). Although these aren’t really particles like we think of matter (little beads of tiny “stuff”), but rather fields or levels of energy.
Then everything that we can detect from our senses is actually made of mostly empty space and energy fields.
Of these four forces, we will be concerned only with the electromagnetic force.
It is necessary to understand that electrical charge (positive/negative) and magnetism (north/south) are different aspects of the same force -- electromagnetism. Oppositely charged objects, such as a proton and an electron, attract one another, while particles with the same charge repel each other.
If you take two magnets and bring the north poles close to each other, the magnets push each other away -- without touching each other! How is it possible to exert a force on something without touching it? It is easy to say that, "the magnets have an electromagnetic force field," but that still doesn't answer the question, what IS the force that the magnets exert on each other?
The negative outer electron force fields repel each other (like charges repel) so atoms never touch each other. Negative electrons repel each other! The atoms won’t touch! __
Negative electrons and positive protons will attract each other.
Life as we know it, our senses, our sense of being, our awareness that we are here, our emotions, our thoughts, our knowledge that we exist, and the perception of our surroundings are a result of the electromagnetic force. All this “non-stuff” is energy.
All of our senses, feelings, emotions, and bodily functions are controlled by electrical impulses sent along nerve cells and neurons.
Neurons help us learn as we develop from childhood. Neurons help us develop new abilities.
Because of neurons and the electromagnetic force, human beings can drive a car, recite a poem, grow a baby, digest food, repair injuries, clean our blood of toxins, fight disease, kill bacteria, safeguard our children, deliver nourishment to our cells, be alert for danger, and plan a days events all at the same time!
All these processes and thousands more take place in our bodies simultaneously. The human brain and neurons cause 6 trillion electromagnetic impulses every second to direct the activities in our bodies and process our thoughts and desires...
...allowing whales to communicate over distances of 3000 miles…...
…allowing the Monarch butterfly to fly 1200 miles from Canada to Mexico each autumn navigating by the earth’s magnetic field, and...
…to allow the Warbler to migrate each year from Toronto to South America navigating by the position of the stars. Each wing flap is comprised of millions of electromagnetic pulses to muscle cells, balance systems, eye observations, breathing, etc.
Three years in a row, the same banded Baltimore Oriole arrived in Mentor, Ohio, on the same bush, caught in the same net, 365 days from the previous year, on its way from Canada to South America.
Therefore, the electromagnetic force accounts for all of chemistry, and therefore all of biology, and therefore for life itself!
This same electromagnetic process takes place with the creation of a universe, a solar system, a volcano, a forest, a meadow, a flower, an insect, bacteria, living cells, a thought, a cell phone, a radio transmission, an electronic bank transaction, and a hacker’s stolen data.
The electromagnetic force is also how we transmit our money, our corporate secrets, our communications, our Internet. We use the electrometric force to operate our GPS, heat our homes, and use our cell phones. It is the electromagnetic force that hackers, phreakers, crackers, and corporate criminals utilize to steal our money, our corporate assets, and our military secrets.
The carrier particle of the electromagnetic force is the photon. Depending on the photon’s energy, they are called gamma rays, light, television, microwaves, radio waves, radar, etc.
The electromagnetic interaction is carried by photons. The electromagnetic interaction digests our food, grows our corn, moves our muscles, allows computers to work and hackers to steal. Photons can be absorbed or radiated by any charged particle. Radiated photons are magnetic fields, light, microwaves, cell phone messages, radar, and WiFi signals. Photons have zero mass. They always travel at the speed of light = 186,000 miles per second.
Amazing isn't it - all the wonderful structures of the world around you exist because like charges repel and opposite charges attract!
Something else that is astounding! Matter cannot be created nor destroyed. All the matter that was anywhere at the start of everything is still here! There is no more now than before. There is no less now than before.
All the matter that makes up your body has been around since the beginning of time. It will be around forever!
Here’s another astounding fact! Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It simply changes form.
There is no more energy now than there was at the creation of time. There is no less energy either.
The energy that allows your awareness of being, allows electricity, allows movement and life, becomes radio waves, sound, and light, has been around since the beginning of time and will be around forever.
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It simply changes form. All the energy that ever was still exists!
Sometimes matter turns into energy! Sometimes energy turns into matter! Is there really any difference between energy and matter? Neither can be created or destroyed.
Things I Need to Know From Atoms, Energy, and Electricity Part I An atom is composed of a nucleus containing positively charged protons, neutrally charged neutrons, and is orbited by negatively charged electrons. If the atom has two circling electrons, then the nucleus has two protons and two neutrons. There are 118 known elements. Each one has one more proton than the preceding element. Like charges repel each other (- & -) or (+ & +). Opposite charges attract each other ( + & -). The atom is mostly empty space. 99.9999999999% empty space. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it just changes form. Matter cannot be created or destroyed. Today there is the same about of matter there always was. The carrier particle for the magnetic force is the photon. The electron gets its negative charge from the photon. Electrometric waves, light, x-rays, and radio waves are nothing but photons. They travel at the speed of light, because they are light.
Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART I The End Atoms, energy, and Electricity – PART II will be in the next lesson. It will continue our journey into electricity and magnetic fields as we discover how electronic criminals steal their data.