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1 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Static Electricity
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3 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Static electricity is due to electric charge that builds up on the surface of an insulator, such as a plastic comb. The charge that has built up cannot easily flow away from the insulator, which is why it is called static electricity. What causes static electricity?
4 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 All materials are made of atoms, which contain electric charges. An atom has equal numbers of electrons and protons and so has no overall charge. Where does static charge come from? Around the outside of an atom are electrons, which have a negative charge. The nucleus at the centre of an atom contains protons, which have a positive charge. Electrons do not always stay attached to atoms and can sometimes be removed by rubbing. Atoms that have lost or gained electrons are called ions.
5 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Static charge can build up when two insulating materials are rubbed together, such as a plastic comb moving through hair. Friction between the materials causes electrons to be transferred from one material to the other: one material ends up with more electrons, so it now has an overall negative charge one material ends up with fewer electrons, so it now has an overall positive charge. How does static charge build up?
6 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Friction can be used to create a static charge. The insulator ends up with an overall negative charge. The insulator ends up with an overall positive charge. How can static charge be created? If an insulator is rubbed with a cloth, it can become charged in one of two ways: Electrons move from the cloth to the insulator. Electrons move from the insulator to the cloth. OR
7 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Charging materials
8 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Static charge – true or false?
9 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 A gold leaf electroscope can be used to detect charge. When the metal plate becomes charged, the charge spreads out through the metal rod and the gold leaf. An electroscope consists of an earthed metal case, inside which a metal rod is connected to a metal plate. The metal rod and the gold leaf gain the same charge, so the thin gold leaf is repelled from the rod and sticks out. A piece of gold leaf is attached to the other end of the metal rod. How can static charge be detected?
10 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 A Van de Graaff generator is a machine used to build up static charge. It was invented in 1931 by Robert Jemison Van de Graaff, an American physicist. This machine uses the simple principle of rubbing insulating materials to build up a supply of charged particles. The generator can produce very high voltages and was first used to help scientists study the behaviour of subatomic particles. What is a Van de Graaff generator?
11 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 ‘Van de Graaff’ generator
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13 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 What are the forces between charges? The forces between charges can be investigated using rods made of insulating materials. What happens when two positively-charged acetate rods are placed near each other? The rods repel each other because they have the same overall charge. What will happen if one rod is replaced with a charged polythene rod? rods repel each other acetate rods
14 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 How do opposite charges behave? When a charged acetate rod is placed near a charged polythene rod, the rods attract each other. Why does this happen? The polythene rod has an overall negative charge and the acetate rod has an overall positive charge. The overall charges of these rods are opposite and so they attract each other. rods attract each other polythene rod acetate rod
15 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Investigating pairs of charges
16 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Experimenting with static charge
17 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Designing an experiment
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19 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Glossary
20 of 20© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Multiple-choice quiz
1 of 38© Boardworks Ltd of 38© Boardworks Ltd 2007.
1 of 5© Boardworks Ltd of 5© Boardworks Ltd 2011 How does static charge build up? Static charge can build up when two insulating materials are.
Advanced Higher Physics Unit 2 Electric Fields. Size of charged particles Powers of ten video Watch the last five minutes of the following video:
© Boardworks Ltd of 44 Physics Static Electricity.
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STATIC ELECTRICITY. Have you ever stuck a balloon to the wall after rubbing it on your head? Have you ever stuck a balloon to the wall after rubbing it.
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Clues 1.This rubbing action applies a force which makes insulators become charged. 2.This is what happens when like (the same) charges are close.
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Welcome to Year 11 Extra Science!! Mr Hicks. Year 11 Extra Science Target grades for this group are A* A B And if you really flunk it….. C!
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 KS4 Static electricity. © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Charge ParticleCharge Proton Neutron Electron +1 none.
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17.1 Electric charges Concept of charge What will happen when you comb your hair on a dry day? The hair is attracted to a plastic comb.
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OVERVIEW Ancient Greece: when certain objects were rubbed (ex. amber) with wool or fur, they would attract lint and dust “STATIC”: stationary or not.
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