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USG Part III: Electrochemistry USG Part III: Electrochemistry See also the NOTES documents posted online at our wikispace, the online self-quizzes posted at our wikispace, and all assignments and materials related to our Neuron Action Potential Circuit Design Challenge Lab (especially your Lab Reflection) and your Ohm’s Law and Electric Power Practice Problems Classwork

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Electricity is generated by the movement of charged particles, in which like charges ___________ one another and opposite charges _________ one another. a) repel, repel b) repel, attract c) attract, repel d) repel, repel

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Electricity is generated by the movement of charged particles, in which like charges ___________ one another and opposite charges _________ one another. a) repel, repel b) repel, attract c) attract, repel d) repel, repel

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Electric charge is measured in ________________ Electric current is measured in _______________ Electric power is measured in ________________ Electric resistance is measured in _____________ Electric potential difference is measured in ________.

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Electric charge is measured in Coulombs Electric current is measured in amperes Electric power is measured in watts Electric resistance is measured in ohms (Ω) Electric potential difference is measured in volts.

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How is electric power calculated? Provide 1. The a mathematical equation in words, _________________________________ 2. The a mathematical equation in one letter symbols, _________________________________ 3. And the mathematical equation in units. _________________________________

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How is electric power calculated? Provide 1. The a mathematical equation in words, Power = Current X Voltage 2. The a mathematical equation in one letter symbols, P= IV 3. And the mathematical equation in units. watts = amperes X volts

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What is Ohm’s Law? Provide 1. The a mathematical equation in words, _________________________________ 2. The a mathematical equation in one letter symbols, _________________________________ 3. And the mathematical equation in units. _________________________________

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What is Ohm’s Law? Provide 1. The a mathematical equation in words, Volts = Current X Resistance 2. The a mathematical equation in one letter symbols, V= IR 3. And the mathematical equation in units. volts = amperes X ohms

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In a battery-powered circuit, because they have a _______ charge, electrons flow from the ______ to the ______. a) positive; anode; cathode b) positive; cathode ; anode c) negative; anode; cathode d) negative; cathode ; anode

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In a battery-powered circuit, because they have a _______ charge, electrons flow from the ______ to the ______. a) positive; anode; cathode b) positive; cathode ; anode c) negative; anode; cathode d) negative; cathode ; anode

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According to Ohm’s Law, if resistance between two points increases, current will: a) decrease b) increase c) remain the same. d) become zero.

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According to Ohm’s Law, if resistance between two points increases, current will: a) decrease b) increase c) remain the same. d) become zero.

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A circuit in which the path is complete, with no gaps is called a(n) _________________ because the _________ can flow. a) open circuit, current b) open wire, resistance c) closed circuit, current d) closed system, resistance

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A circuit in which the path is complete, with no gaps is called a(n) _________________ because the _________ can flow. a) open circuit, current b) open wire, resistance c) closed circuit, current d) closed system, resistance

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Imagine a simple series circuit with one 1.5V battery and one bulb. When the 1.5V battery is replaced with a 3V battery a) the bulb gets brighter b) the bulb gets dimmer c) the bulb stays at the same level of brightness

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Imagine a simple series circuit with one 1.5V battery and one bulb. When the 1.5V battery is replaced with a 3V battery a) the bulb gets brighter b) the bulb gets dimmer c) the bulb stays at the same level of brightness

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In a given circuit, increasing the length of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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In a given circuit, increasing the length of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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How much power is used by a 9-V battery that produces a 3 amp current?

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How much power is used by a 9-V battery that produces a 3 amp current? Remember, P= IV ; or watts = amperes X volts. Thus, in this case, watts = 3 amperes X 9 Volts = 27 watts

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A circuit in which the path has gaps is called a(n) _________________ and the current __________ flow. a) open wire, can b) open circuit, cannot c) closed circuit, can d) closed system, cannot

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A circuit in which the path has gaps is called a(n) _________________ and the current __________ flow. a) open wire, can b) open circuit, cannot c) closed circuit, can d) closed system, cannot

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In a given circuit, decreasing the temperature of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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In a given circuit, decreasing the temperature of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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According to Ohm’s Law, if electric potential difference between two points increases, current will: a) decrease b) increase c) remain the same. d) become zero.

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According to Ohm’s Law, if electric potential difference between two points increases, current will: a) decrease b) increase c) remain the same. d) become zero.

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You have two light bulbs, one with a rating of 50 watts and one with a rating of 100 watts. Remember that the voltage across each would be the same if they were placed in a light socket. How would the current through each light bulb compare? a) Both bulbs would draw the same current. b) The higher watt bulb would draw less current. c) The lower watt bulb would draw less current. d) The lower watt bulb would draw more current.

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You have two light bulbs, one with a rating of 50 watts and one with a rating of 100 watts. Remember that the voltage across each would be the same if they were placed in a light socket. How would the current through each light bulb compare? a) Both bulbs would draw the same current. b) The higher watt bulb would draw less current. c) The lower watt bulb would draw less current. d) The lower watt bulb would draw more current.

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How much power is used when a 3 V battery produces 0.1 amp of current?

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How much power is used when a 3 V battery produces 0.1 amp of current? Remember, P= IV ; or watts = amperes X volts. Thus, in this case, watts = 0.1 amperes X 3 volts, = 0.3 watts

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Current is measured in _____, resistance in measured in _____ and power is measured in _____. a) watts, ohms, amperes b) amperes, ohms, watts c) Coulombs, volts, amperes d) ohms, amperes, watts e) amperes, ohms, Coulombs

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Current is measured in _____, resistance in measured in _____ and power is measured in _____. a) watts, ohms, amperes b) amperes, ohms, watts c) Coulombs, volts, amperes d) ohms, amperes, watts e) amperes, ohms, Coulombs

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In a given circuit, increasing the diameter of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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In a given circuit, increasing the diameter of the wire has which effect? a) Increases resistance b) Decreases resistance c) Increases current d) Has no affect on resistance or current e) B and C

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What is the resistance of a device if the current through it is 10 amps and the voltage across it is 5 volts?

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Remember, V= IR ; or volts = amperes X ohms Therefore, R = V ; or ohms = volts. I amperes Thus, in this case, ohms = 5 volts = 0.5 ohms 10 amperes

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Label the circuit below to show the following: anode, battery, cathode, direction of electron flow, resistor, and switch. LED light (0.40 Amp, 2.6 Volts)

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Label the circuit below to show the following: anode, battery, cathode, direction of electron flow, resistor, and switch. LED light (0.40 Amp, 2.6 Volts) Battery Anode Cathode Electron flow Switch Resistor Electron flow

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What power is used if a resistance of 100 ohms has a current of 0.1 amps flowing through it?

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What power is used if a resistance of 100 ohms has a current of 0.1 amps flowing through it? Remember, P= IV ; or watts = amperes X volts Here we must first determine the volts before we can solve for watts. From Ohm’s Law, we know that V= IR ; or volts = amperes X ohms Thus, in this case, volts = 0.1 amps X 100 ohms = 10 volts. Substituting this value in our power equation above gives: watts = 0.1 amperes X 10 volts = 1 watt

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What is the power used in a device if the resistance is 100 ohms and the voltage across it is 4V?

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Remember, P= IV ; or watts = amperes X volts Here we must first determine the amperes before we can solve for watts. From Ohm’s Law, we know that V= IR ; or volts = amperes X ohms. Rearranging this equation gives: amperes = volts ohms Thus, in this case, amperes = 4 volts =.04 amperes 100 ohms Substituting this value in our power equation above gives: watts = 0.04 amperes X 4 volts =.16 watts

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USG Part IV: Neurotransmitters USG Part IV: Neurotransmitters See also the NOTES documents posted online at our wikispace, the online self-quizzes posted at our wikispace, and all assignments and materials related to neurotransmitters, especially your Neurotransmitters Activity Classwork Poster

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The primary neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction is ________, an ________ neurotransmitter. A) Dopamine, excitatory B) Glutamate, excitatory C) Acetylcholine, excitatory D) GABA, inhibitory E) Serotonin, inhibitory

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The primary neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction is ________, an ________ neurotransmitter. A) Dopamine, excitatory B) Glutamate, excitatory C) Acetylcholine, excitatory D) GABA, inhibitory E) Serotonin, inhibitory

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Arrange the following in the proper order in which they occur at the pre-synaptic side of a neuromuscular junction. 1. Calcium ions enter the cell via voltage-gated calcium channels 2. An action potential arrives at the presynaptic terminal 3. Neurotransmitter is released A) 1, 2, 3 B) 2, 1, 3 C) 2, 3, 1 D) 3, 2, 1 E) 3, 1, 2

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Arrange the following in the proper order in which they occur at the pre-synaptic side of a neuromuscular junction. 1. Calcium ions enter the cell via voltage-gated calcium channels 2. An action potential arrives at the presynaptic terminal 3. Neurotransmitter is released A) 1, 2, 3 B) 2, 1, 3 C) 2, 3, 1 D) 3, 2, 1 E) 3, 1, 2

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The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron are reabsorbed by a pre- synaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again. A. axon terminals B. synaptic transmission C. reuptake D. diffusion

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The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron are reabsorbed by a pre- synaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again. A. axon terminals B. synaptic transmission C. reuptake D. diffusion

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Arrange the following in the proper order in which they occur at the post-synaptic side of a excitatory synapse. 1. Neurotransmitter binds to a ligand-gated ion-channel. 2. An action potential is propagated along the postsynaptic cell’s axon 3. Depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane. 4. Sodium ions move into the post-synaptic cell. A) 1, 2, 3, 4 B) 2, 1, 3, 4 C) 4, 2, 3, 1 D) 1, 4, 3, 2 E) 3, 1, 2, 4

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Arrange the following in the proper order in which they occur at the post-synaptic side of a excitatory synapse. 1. Neurotransmitter binds to a ligand-gated ion-channel. 2. An action potential is propagated along the postsynaptic cell’s axon 3. Depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane. 4. Sodium ions move into the post-synaptic cell. A) 1, 2, 3, 4 B) 2, 1, 3, 4 C) 4, 2, 3, 1 D) 1, 4, 3, 2 E) 3, 1, 2, 4

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Generally, neural impulses travel a. electrically between and within each neuron. b. chemically between and within each neuron. c. electrically between neurons and chemically within each neuron. d. chemically between neurons and electrically within each neuron.

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Generally, neural impulses travel a. electrically between and within each neuron. b. chemically between and within each neuron. c. electrically between neurons and chemically within each neuron. d. chemically between neurons and electrically within each neuron.

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The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is primarily involved in A. emotional states and sleep B. physical arousal, learning, and memory C. learning, memory, and muscle contractions D. movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations

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The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is primarily involved in A. emotional states and sleep B. physical arousal, learning, and memory C. learning, memory, and muscle contractions D. movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations

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Neurotransmitters are _______ that travel across the ________ to another cell. a. electrical signals; receptors b. electrical signals; synapses c. chemicals; receptors d. chemicals; synaptic cleft

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Neurotransmitters are _______ that travel across the ________ to another cell. a. electrical signals; receptors b. electrical signals; synapses c. chemicals; receptors d. chemicals; synaptic cleft

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List the following in order of their occurrence: A. Action potential travels along axon of sending neuron B. The neurotransmitter must fit perfectly into the receptor C. Synaptic transmission occurs when the action potential causes neurotransmitters to be released by the synaptic vesicles in the axon terminals D. The neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and bind with the correctly shaped receptor sites on the receiving neuron. A) ABCD B) ACDC C) ADCB D) ACDB

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List the following in order of their occurrence: A. Action potential travels along axon of sending neuron B. The neurotransmitter must fit perfectly into the receptor C. Synaptic transmission occurs when the action potential causes neurotransmitters to be released by the synaptic vesicles in the axon terminals D. The neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and bind with the correctly shaped receptor sites on the receiving neuron. A) ABCD B) ACDC C) ADCB D) ACDB

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Which of the following statements about the action of drugs is TRUE. A. Drugs can mimic the function of neurotransmitter at the synaptic cleft. B. Drugs can block the ligand-gated ion channel site on the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron. C. Drugs can block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter by the pre-synaptic neuron. D. All of the above

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Which of the following statements about the action of drugs is TRUE. A. Drugs can mimic the function of neurotransmitter at the synaptic cleft. B. Drugs can block the ligand-gated ion channel site on the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron. C. Drugs can block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter by the pre-synaptic neuron. D. All of the above

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Low levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine are often associated with A) Depression B) Multiple sclerosis C) Parkinson’s Disease D) Alzheimer’s Disease

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Low levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine are often associated with A) Depression B) Multiple sclerosis C) Parkinson’s Disease D) Alzheimer’s Disease

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Muscular tremors and rigidity in Parkinson's disease results from which of the following? A) Damage to acetylcholine pathway in the thalamus B) Damage to a dopamine pathway in the substantia nigra C) Excitotoxicity due to excess levels of glutamate D) Loss of GABA in the spinal cord

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Muscular tremors and rigidity in Parkinson's disease results from which of the following? A) Damage to acetylcholine pathway in the thalamus B) Damage to a dopamine pathway in the substantia nigra C) Excitotoxicity due to excess levels of glutamate D) Loss of GABA in the spinal cord

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Neurotransmitters are contained in _____ that are located in _____ of the pre-synaptic neuron. A. vesicles; axon terminals B. axon terminals; dendrites C. receptor sites; synapses D. cell membranes; synaptic gaps

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Neurotransmitters are contained in _____ that are located in _____ of the pre-synaptic neuron. A. vesicles; axon terminals B. axon terminals; dendrites C. receptor sites; synapses D. cell membranes; synaptic gaps

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Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are often associated with A) Depression B) Multiple sclerosis C) Parkinson’s Disease D) Alzheimer’s Disease

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Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are often associated with A) Depression B) Multiple sclerosis C) Parkinson’s Disease D) Alzheimer’s Disease

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Which of the following mechanisms can serve to remove neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft? A) Reuptake by the axon terminus of the pre-synaptic cell B) Breakdown by enzymes C) Diffusion away from the synaptic cleft D) All of the above

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Which of the following mechanisms can serve to remove neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft? A) Reuptake by the axon terminus of the pre-synaptic cell B) Breakdown by enzymes C) Diffusion away from the synaptic cleft D) All of the above

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Which of the following is a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system? A) Acetylcholine B) Glutamate C) GABA D) Norepinephrine

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Which of the following is a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system? A) Acetylcholine B) Glutamate C) GABA D) Norepinephrine

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Neurons and Synapses 6.5. The Nervous System Composed of cells called neurons. These are typically elongated cells that can carry electrical impulses.

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