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Unit 1: Nuclear Chemistry Review By Mrs. Billings.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Nuclear Chemistry Review By Mrs. Billings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1: Nuclear Chemistry Review By Mrs. Billings

2 Brief Overview: Structure of the atomStructure of the atom Identifying types of decay (alpha, beta, gamma) & how nucleus changes with eachIdentifying types of decay (alpha, beta, gamma) & how nucleus changes with each Nuclear reaction equationsNuclear reaction equations Nuclear fission vs. nuclear fusionNuclear fission vs. nuclear fusion

3 Structure of the Atom

4 How would you describe the nucleus? Nucleus is small but dense!! Atom mostly empty space.

5 Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutronsIsotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Practice: Practice: –Determine the number of protons and neutrons in Krypton-86

6 Answer: Mass number is 86, atomic number is 36.Mass number is 86, atomic number is 36. Protons = 36Protons = 36 Neutrons = = 50Neutrons = = 50 What is this called when it has a different mass from the one of the periodic table?What is this called when it has a different mass from the one of the periodic table?

7 What keeps nucleus together? + and + Repel + and + Repel Why doesn’t the nucleus’ protons repel each other and leave?Why doesn’t the nucleus’ protons repel each other and leave? - Strong Nuclear Force keeps it together. - Strong Nuclear Force keeps it together.

8 Why do things radiate?

9 Rutherford’s Experiment

10 Types of Decay Alpha RadiationAlpha Radiation –Nucleus loses 2 protons and 2 neutrons (alpha particle) –Has a +2 charge –Can be blocked by paper or clothing Example: Ra → Rn He

11 Types of Decay continued… Beta RadiationBeta Radiation –A neutron turns into a proton and gives off an electron (beta particle) –Has a –1 charge –Can be blocked by metal foil Example: 14 6 C → 14 7 N β

12 Types of Decay continued… Gamma RadiationGamma Radiation –Each gamma ray has no mass and no charge and no particles; it’s just pure energy! –Account for almost all the mass lost in radiation –Not completely blocked by lead or concrete (BUT GAMMA, IT’LL KILL YOU!!!) (BUT GAMMA, IT’LL KILL YOU!!!) Example: Example: U → Th He γ

13 Radiation Chart TypeSymbol Alpha decay 4 2 He Beta decay 0 -1 β Gamma decay 00 γ00 γ00 γ00 γ Positron emission 01 β01 β01 β01 β Electron capture 0 -1 e Proton 11 p11 p11 p11 p Neutron Bombardment 10 n10 n10 n10 n

14 Types of Decay Identify type of decay:Identify type of decay: –A. alpha, B. beta, C. gamma, D. positron, E. electron capture 14 6 C  14 7 N β 14 6 C  14 7 N β 11 6 C  11 5 B β 11 6 C  11 5 B β Rn  4 2 He Po 14 6 C e → 14 5 N

15 Nuclear Reaction Equations Nuclear Reaction Equations:Nuclear Reaction Equations: –Calculating the new compound or types of decay involved. Practice Problems: 12 7 N  ? β 12 7 N  ? β 14 7 N → ? β 14 7 N → ? β Ra → ? He Ra → ? He

16 Decay Series

17 Practice Predicting Radiation TypeSymbol When it occurs Alpha decay 4 2 He When atoms too heavy (>83) Beta decay 0 -1 β Too many Neutrons Gamma decay 00 γ00 γ00 γ00 γ Positron emission 01 β01 β01 β01 βToo many protons Electron capture 0 -1 e Proton 11 p11 p11 p11 pBombardment Neutron 10 n10 n10 n10 n Bombardment (like in nuclear fission)

18 Fusion vs Fission Nuclear Fusion:Nuclear Fusion: –Two smaller nuclei are coming together to form one larger, more stable nucleus. –Examples of Sun and Hydrogen bomb. Nuclear Fission:Nuclear Fission: –One large nuclei splits into two smaller and more stable nuclei. –Examples of nuclear power plant and atomic bomb.

19 Binding Energy

20 NUCLEAR JEOPARDY

21 Directions Circle desks into teams of 4Circle desks into teams of 4 Get a whiteboard & sock/marker to shareGet a whiteboard & sock/marker to share Come up with the answer in your group, making sure other groups don’t hear you.Come up with the answer in your group, making sure other groups don’t hear you. Write the answer on your whiteboard and hold up toward teacher when done.Write the answer on your whiteboard and hold up toward teacher when done. First group done with correct answer gets points.First group done with correct answer gets points. Rotate the whiteboard to the next person in the group.Rotate the whiteboard to the next person in the group.

22 Question 1 What are the 3 main types of nuclear radiation?What are the 3 main types of nuclear radiation?

23 Question 1: Answer AlphaAlpha BetaBeta GammaGamma (positron)(positron) (electron capture)(electron capture)

24 Question 2 How would you stop Beta radiation?

25 Question 2: Answer Metal foil

26 Question 3 What type of decay is the following equation? I  Xe β

27 Question 3: Answer I  Xe β Beta Decay

28 Question 4 What is missing in the equation? 13 7 N ---> 4 2 He + _____

29 Question 4: Answer 13 7 N ---> 4 2 He + _ 9 5 B _

30 Question 5 What is missing? 3 1 H  3 2 He + ______ 3 1 H  3 2 He + ______ What type of decay is it?

31 Question 5: Answer 3 1 H  3 2 He + _ 0 -1 β _ Beta decay

32 Question 6 What is it called when a nucleus splits apart and releases massive amounts of energy?What is it called when a nucleus splits apart and releases massive amounts of energy?

33 Question 6: Answer Nuclear fissionNuclear fission

34 Question 7 Which releases more energy fission or fusion?Which releases more energy fission or fusion? Give a real-life example of it to prove why.Give a real-life example of it to prove why.

35 Question 7: Answer FusionFusion The sun or hydrogen bombThe sun or hydrogen bomb

36 Question 8 When will atoms become radioactive?When will atoms become radioactive?

37 Question 8: Answer When there are too many protons and neutronsWhen there are too many protons and neutrons When there is an uneven amount of protons and neutrons.When there is an uneven amount of protons and neutrons.

38 Question 9 What keeps the nucleus from falling apart?What keeps the nucleus from falling apart?

39 Question 9: Answer Strong Nuclear ForceStrong Nuclear Force

40 Question 10 What makes up the majority of the atom’s mass?What makes up the majority of the atom’s mass? What makes up the majority of the atom’s volume?What makes up the majority of the atom’s volume?

41 Question 10: Answer Mass= nucleus (protons & neutrons)Mass= nucleus (protons & neutrons) Volume= empty space (nothing)Volume= empty space (nothing)


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