2 Plant Body Shoot system = leaves + stem Root system Meristem = cells that divide for life of plant, can give rise to all plant structures
3 Plant Body Leaf = blade + petiole Functions Exposes surface to sunlight Major site of photosynthesis Conserves water Provides for gas exchangeBladePetiole
4 Phloem transports sugar Plant BodyStemFunctionsHolds leaves up to lightTransport of substances through vascular tissuePhloem transports sugarXylem conducts waterand minerals
5 Plant Body Root Functions Anchors plant in soil Takes up water and minerals from soil
6 1 Tree Tobacco Nicotiana glauca glauca = bluish-gray, referring to leaf color Leaves contain high levels of nicotene Introduced from South America by missionaries, from imported grain or on purpose…?
7 2 Cheeseweed Malva neglecta Seeds and leaves are edible.Seeds are shaped like rounds of cheese.
8 Castor Bean Ricinus communis Ricin in seeds used to kill a spy on London Bridge recently discovered in the US mail possible cancer treatment Oil from seeds has laxative and wound-healing properties.
9 4 Sweet fennel Foeniculum vulgare Petioles are eaten, like celery.Folkways medicine: Dried Leaves may repel fleasPriests spread on mission floors for fragranceNative to the Mediterranean, fennel has spread to surrounding areas, including India. Known to the Greeks and Romans, is was used as food, spice and medicine. The primary use of fennel seeds is to relieve flatulence, but they also settle colic, stimulate the appetite and digestion. Fennel is also diuretic and anti-inflammatory. Like anise (Pimpinella anisum) and caraway (Carum carvi), it has a calming effect on bronchitis and coughs. An infusion of the seeds may be taken as a gargle for sore throats and as a mild expectorant. Fennel increases breast-milk production and the herb is still used as an eye wash for sore eyes and conjunctivitis. Essential oil from the sweet variety is used for its digestive and relaxing properties. MAIN PROPERTIES: Digestive, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory.
10 5 Scarlet Pimpernel Anagallis arvensis Folkways Medicine: May repel witchesPoisonous to humans and livestock
11 6 Poison hemlock Comium maculatum Conin causes muscle paralysis, found in all parts of plant.
12 7 Filaree (Storksbill) Erodium Fruit shape is long and pointedFilaree comes from the Spanish name for needleErodium refers to heronYoung foliage is edible
13 8 Saltbush Atriplex canescens Large numbers of nutritious seeds, Used by native Americans for flour8 Saltbush Atriplex canescens
14 9 Sweet clover Melilotus albus Enhances production of cumarin by molds Original source of heparin Important source of honey
15 10 Opium poppy Papaver somniferum Morphine and codeine from developing seed pods10 Opium poppy Papaver somniferum
16 11 California Poppy Eschscholtzia californica Young foliage is edible Roots used for toothache
17 12 White Goosefoot Chenopodium Young foliage and seeds are edible
18 13 Mexican Tea Chenopodium ambrosioides Folkways Medicine: Seeds act against intestinal worms.Dried plant is used as seasoning.
19 14 Horehound Marubium vulgare Flavoring in candy, cough drops, and beer Folkways Medicine: good for sore throatsMember of the Mint family
20 15 California Mugwort Artemisia douglasiana Folkways medicine: Uses for intestinal, respiratory and skin ailments.
21 16 Jimson weed Datura meteloides All parts of plant have alkaloids like atropine medical use religious observances by Native Americans --hallucinogen in the 60’sDANGEROUS! Recent hospitalizations and deaths reported in LA County.
22 17 Sea Fig Charpobrotus chilensis Edible fleshy fruit forms below the flowerHelps to stabilize soil on hillsides or sand near ocean
23 18 Tumbleweed (Russian Thistle) Salsola tragus Noxious weed = targeted for eradicationShoot breaks off close to base and is pushed by wind to distribute seeds.Contains high levels of nitrates or soluble oxalates
24 19 New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonioides Leaves can be eaten raw or cookedContains harmless levels soluble oxalates
25 20 Water Cress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Leaves and shoots can be eaten.Rich in Vitamin CBe sure it comes from unpolluted waters!
26 21 Wild celery Apium graveolens Escaped from cultivationPetioles are eatenWild plant has strong taste made milder by cooking
27 22 Chicory Cichorium intybus Root scrapings used as coffee flavoring or substituteLeaves of C. endiva used in salads
28 23 Western Ragweed Ambrosia The pollen is a common respiratory or hay-fever allergen.
29 24 Sow Thistle Sonchus Young leaves are edible One species is a noxious weed
30 25 Plantain Platago potagonica Young leaves are edibleFolkways medicine: wound healing, laxative
31 26 Curly Dock Rumex crispus Young leaves are edibleFolkways medicine: to treat cough, blood pressure, itching, sprainsToxic to livestock
32 27 Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Young leaves and roots are eatenDried roots used as coffee substituteSeeds dispersed by wind
33 28 Black Mustard Brassica nigra Young leaves are eatenSeed oil used to make mustardPossibly introduced by missionaries who scattered it along the Camino Real to mark the way between missions
34 29 Wild Radish Raphanus sativus Scrapings from young roots or young seed pods taste like radishes
35 30 Wild oats Avena fatuaEscaped from cultivationSeeds are edible
36 31 English Ivy Hedera helix Juice causes skin irritationBerries and leaves are toxic
37 32 Periwinkle Vinca major A related species provides treatments for Hodgkin’s disease, leukemia and other cancers32 Periwinkle Vinca major
38 33 Garden Nastursium Tropaeolum majus Leaves are eaten in saladsHallucinogenic properties unproven
39 34 Blue Gum Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globosus Added as a flavoring to candies and cough medicines
40 35 Spurge Euphorbia Milky sap (latex) causes skin irritation Relative of the mildly-toxic Poinsettia plant