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The Major Battles of the Civil War Part II MOI. Learning Objectives ► Comprehend and compare the battles at Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Major Battles of the Civil War Part II MOI. Learning Objectives ► Comprehend and compare the battles at Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Major Battles of the Civil War Part II MOI

2 Learning Objectives ► Comprehend and compare the battles at Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and the Wilderness Campaign ► Know and understand the significance of said battles and how they affected the outcome of the war ► Comprehend the impact that the Civil War had on future conflicts


4 Antietam 17 Sep 1862 ► VA cleared of Union troops after win at Second Bull Run ► Lee attacks North with objectives:  Convince Maryland to secede  Capitalize on Union’s weariness  Indirectly threaten Washington  Gain international support

5 Antietam ► Lee crosses Potomac ► McClellan (back in command) marches NW with 95,000 ► Union lucks upon Lee’s battle plan  Still, McClellan moves too slowly  Gives Lee time to fall back to Sharpsburg ► Intercept Lee near Potomac with 70,000 vs. Lee’s 39,000 ► Lee outnumbered but holds of charge  Shorter interior lines of communication  By late afternoon in danger of collapse  Timely arrival of Hill with reinforcements ends battle


7 Analysis ► McClellan again removed from command  Waited too long to attack  Hesitated before committing troops when Lee was pressed  Allowed Confederates to escape back to VA ► Antietam had two far-reaching effects  Caused international support to be postponed  Emancipation Proclamation

8 Preparation at Chancellorsville May 1863 ► Hooker – commander of Union forces ► 134,000 Union vs. 60,000 Confederates ► Hooker’s plan  Three corps move up river  Two corps hold Lee’s attention  Cavalry corps maneuver to rear and destroy comm and supply  Double envelopment ► Lee’s plan  Keep Hooker under surveillance  Use offensive, maneuver, economy of force to make up for inferior numbers


10 Battle of Chancellorsville ► 1 May: Hooker falls back to Chancellorsville after skirmish ► Lee informed of Hooker’s exposed flank ► Lee “envelop the envelopers”  17,000 hold Union attention  Jackson’s 26,000 make 15 mile-wide swing ► 2 May, 1700: Jackson charges Union’s flank  Confederates weary after movement  Jackson wounded and Confederates pushed back  Hooker withdraws whole line next morning

11 Battle of Chancellorsville ► 3 May: Sedgewick (Union) assaults Marye’s Heights  Lee leaves Stuart (Jackson’s successor) with 25,000 to guard Hooker  Lee moves with 21,000 to meet Sedgewick & repels ► 6 May: Lee prepares to repel Hooker  Hooker surprises him by withdrawing


13 Analysis ► Use of cavalry  Stuart’s recon contributes to Lee’s plans  Hooker’s use as rear assault ineffective ► Lee uses principle of movement well  Didn’t violate mass due to common mission  Hooker yielded the initiative when his stronger force could have divided Lee’s forces

14 Analysis ► Union loses 17,000 vs. CSA 13,000  Remember … initially, 134,000 vs 60,000 ► Lee loses critical general: Jackson ► Chancellorsville shows peak of Lee’s brilliance  Lee’s moral superiority over Hooker  Napoleon: “The General is the head, the whole of the army.”

15 Preparation for Gettysburg ► Lee wants to use his initiative  Morale high after Chancellorsville  Attack on North would remove Feds from VA ► Lee’s favored defensive tactics would not work  Limited ammunition supply  Confederates unfamiliar with territory  Lee’s confidence in troops  Stuart’s lack of proper intelligence ► Lincoln vetoes Hooker’s plan to counter in Richmond; replaced by Gen Meade

16 Battle of Gettysburg 1 July 1863 ► Confederates outflank at Cemetery Hill and hold Gettysburg ► Pickett to arrive with 15,000 fresh CSA ► Lee has no luck assaulting flanks  3 July: Decides to try final, frontal assault  Union troops expertly entrenched  “Pickett’s charge” fails to break Union lines ► Both sides lose 20,000+ ► Lee withdraws across Potomac ► Meade misses opportunity to overwhelm Lee


18 Analysis ► Shows importance of communication ► Lee relied too heavily on frontal assault  After breaking lines, numbers to small to assault ► Stuart’s cavalry neutralized by Custer ► Lee still weakened by loss of Jackson  New leadership lacked proper comm  Also lacked experience ► Lee overestimates his troops ► Union victory which begins decline of CSA

19 U. S. Grant ► Feb 1864: Grant promoted to Lt. Gen.  Considers big picture  Meade to contain Lee while Sherman strikes from south ► Begins the Wilderness Campaign  Intensely bloody battles as Grant fights to Richmond  50,000 Union vs 25,000 CSA losses

20 Wilderness Campaign ► Grant smashes into Lee’s lines  Grant repelled  Grant would “slide down”  Lee would follow  Grant would hit Lee’s line, repelled, etc. ► Both sides win  Lee keeps Grant from reaching Richmond  Grant weakened Confederate army  Grant’s army – troops replenished; Lee’s – no replacements

21 Petersburg ► Grant attempts to flank Lee  Lee unaware  Union commanders too cautious  Stalemate ► Apr 1865: Lee withdraws to west to resupply  Find supply lines cut  Retreat route blocked  9 Apr 1865: Appomattox Court House

22 Impact of Future Conflicts ► Expanding battlefield due to new technology ► Land and water mines see first use ► Trench warfare begins ► Breech-loading rifle appears ► Trend toward dispersal and increased “individual” combat

23 Summary ► Chancellorsville  Lee’s pinnacle ► Gettysburg  Turning point of Civil War ► Wilderness Campaign ► Future of warfare

24 Questions?

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