Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Electric Charge"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 21 Electric Charge Physics 014 Lecture 1Chapter 21 Electric Charge
2Dr. Mengs H. WeldegaberOffice hours: Thirkield Hall, Room 215, MWF 12:00-1:00pm (or by appointment)Phone: (202)My Research:Atmospheric PhysicsNumerical Modeling
3Course Details See: Syllabus, schedule, grade policy, … • Text: Fundamentals of Physics, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker,9th edition. We will cover chapters in this class.• Exams: Midterm: 11 Oct 2013Final Exam (cumulative): 13 Dec 2013• Quizzes:Weekly.• Grades: Homework 30%,Quizzes 15% ,Midterm Exam 20%Final Exam 35%.
4What are we going to learn? A road map Electric charge Electric force on other electric charges Electric field, and electric potentialMoving electric charges : currentElectronic circuit components: batteries, resistors, capacitorsElectric currents Magnetic field Magnetic force on moving chargesTime-varying magnetic field Electric FieldMore circuit components: inductors, AC circuits.Maxwell’s equations Electromagnetic waves light wavesGeometrical Optics (light rays).Physical optics (light waves): interference, diffraction.
5Let’s get started! Electric charges Two types of charges: positive/negativeLike charges repelOpposite charges attractAtomic structure :negative electron cloudnucleus of positive protons, uncharged neutrons
6Electric Charge Two charged rods of the same sign repel each other. Two charged rods of opposite signs attract each other. Plus signs indicate a positive net charge, and minus signs indicate a negative net charge.
7Force between pairs of point charges: Coulomb’s law Charles-Augustinde Coulomb( )Force between pairs of point charges: Coulomb’s lawororCoulomb’s law -- the force between point charges:Lies along the line connecting the charges.Is proportional to the magnitude of each charge.Is inversely proportional to the distance squared.Note that Newton’s third law says |F12| = |F21|!!
8Coulomb’s lawFor charges in aVACUUMk =Often, we write k as:
9Materials classified based on their ability to move charge Conductors are materials in which a significant number of electrons are free to move. Examples include metals.The charged particles in nonconductors (insulators) are not free to move. Examples include rubber, plastic, glass.Semiconductors are materials that are intermediate between conductors and insulators; examples include silicon and germanium in computer chips.Superconductors are materials that are perfect conductors, allowing charge to move without any hindrance.
10Electric charges in solids In macroscopic solids, nuclei often arrange themselves into a stiff regular pattern called a “lattice”.Electrons move around this lattice. Depending on how they move the solid can be classified by its “electrical properties” as an insulator or a conductor.
11Charges in solidsIn a conductor, electrons move around freely, forming a “sea” of electrons. This is why metals conduct electricity.Charges can be “induced” (moved around) in conductors.Blue background = mobile electronsRed circles = static positive charge (nuclei)-+
12Insulating solidsIn an insulator, each electron cloud is tightly bound to the protons in a nucleus. Wood, glass, rubber.Note that the electrons are not free to move throughout the lattice, but the electron cloud can “distort” locally.+-
13How to charge an objectAn object can be given some “excess” charge: giving electrons to it (we give it negative charge) or taking electrons away (we “give” it positive charge).How do we do charge an object? Usually, moving charges from one surface to another by adhesion (helped by friction), or by contact with other charged objects.If a conductor, the whole electron sea redistributes itself.If an insulator, the electrons stay where they are put.
14Conservation of Charge Total amount of charge in an isolated system is fixed (“conserved”)+1C-2CExample: 2 identical metal spheres have charges+1C and –2C.You connect these together with a metal wire; what is the final charge distribution??
15Conservation of Electric Charges A glass rod is rubbed with silkElectrons are transferred from the glass to the silkEach electron adds a negative charge to the silkAn equal positive charge is left on the rod
16Conservation of Electric Charges A very hard rubber rod is rubbed with animal furElectrons are transferred from the fur to the rubberEach electron adds a negative charge to the rubberAn equal positive charge is left on the fur(very hard rubber)
17Quantization of Charge Charge is always found in INTEGER multiples of the charge on an electron/proton ([[why?]])Unit of charge: Coulomb (C) in SI unitsElectron charge = –e = -1.6 x CoulombsProton charge = +e = +1.6 x CoulombsOne cannot ISOLATE FRACTIONAL CHARGE (e.g x C, +1.9 x C, etc.) [[but what about quarks…?]]Unit of current: Ampere = Coulomb/second
18SuperpositionQuestion: How do we figure out the force on a point charge due to many other point charges?Answer: consider one pair at a time, calculate the force (a vector!) in each case using Coulomb’s Law and finally add all the vectors! (“superposition”)Useful to look out for SYMMETRY to simplify calculations!
19Shell Theories: There are two shell theories for electrostatic force Multiple Forces: If multiple electrostatic forces act on a particle, the net force is the vector sum (not scalar sum) of the individual forces.Shell Theories: There are two shell theories for electrostatic forceAnswer: (a) left towards the electron(b) left away from the other proton(c) left
22Example 2. Find the net force on q3 ? The force exerted by q1 on q3 isThe force exerted by q2 on q3 isThe resultant force exerted on q3 is the vector sum of and
23Example 3. Determine the speed of the electron in orbit about the nuclear proton at a radius of 5.29x10-11 m, assuming the orbit to be circular [The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom]?Soln
24Example 4: Find the force on q1 Three equal charges form an equilateral triangle of side 1.5 m as shownCompute the force on q1What is the force on the other charges?dq1q2q3q1= q2= q3= 20 mCd123yxaSolution: Set up a coordinate system,compute vector sum of F12 and F13
25Summary Electric charges come with two signs: positive and negative. Like charges repel, opposite charges attract, with a magnitude calculated from Coulomb’s law: F=kq1q2/r2Atoms have a positive nucleus and a negative “cloud”.Electron clouds can combine and flow freely in conductors; are stuck to the nucleus in insulators.We can charge objects by transferring charge, or by induction.Electrical charge is conserved, and quantized.