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Chapter Five Molecular Compounds Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry 5th Edition James E. Mayhugh Oklahoma City University  2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five Molecular Compounds Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry 5th Edition James E. Mayhugh Oklahoma City University  2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five Molecular Compounds Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry 5th Edition James E. Mayhugh Oklahoma City University  2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.

2 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 2 Outline ►5.1 Covalent Bonds ►5.2 Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table ►5.3 Multiple Covalent Bonds ►5.4 Coordinate Covalent Bonds ►5.5 Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structures ►5.6 Drawing Lewis Structures ►5.7 The Shapes of Molecules ►5.8 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity ►5.9 Polar Molecules ►5.10 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds ►5.11 Characteristics of Molecular Compounds

3 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Covalent Bonds ►The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). ►A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. ►Main group elements can obtain completed outer subshells with eight valence electrons (or two for hydrogen), so that they have a noble gas electron configuration, by sharing an appropriate number of electrons in covalent bonds.

4 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 4 A single molecule of water contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom covalently bonded to one another. We might visualize a water molecule using a space-filling model as shown here:

5 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 5 ►When two atoms come together, electrical interactions occur. ► Some of these interactions are repulsive—the two positively charged nuclei repel each other and the negatively charged electrons repel each other. ►Other interactions, however, are attractive—each nucleus attracts the electrons and each electron attracts both nuclei. ►When the attractive forces are stronger than the repulsive forces, a covalent bond is formed and the atoms stay together.

6 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 6 When the nucleus–electron attractions (blue arrows) are greater than the nucleus–nucleus and electron–electron repulsions (red arrows), the result is a net attractive force that holds the atoms together to form a molecule.

7 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 7 ►Covalent bond formation in H 2 can be visualized by imagining that the two spherical 1s atomic orbitals blend together and overlap to give an egg-shaped molecular orbital. ►Both atoms share the two valence electrons and the stability of the closed shell electron configuration of Helium. ►The shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond can be represented as a line between atoms.

8 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 8 ►An individual Cl atom has 7 valence electrons. 6 of these are paired and the 7 th is unpaired. ►When two Cl atoms approach each other, the unpaired 3p electrons are shared by both atoms in a covalent bond. ►Each Cl atom in the molecule now “owns” six outer- shell electrons and “shares” two more, giving each a valence shell octet like that of the noble gas Ar.

9 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 9 ►In addition to H 2 and Cl 2, five other elements always exist as diatomic (two-atom) molecules. ►N 2 and O 2 are colorless, odorless, nontoxic gases. F 2 is a pale yellow, highly reactive gas; Br 2 is a dark red, toxic liquid; and I 2 is a violet, crystalline solid.

10 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table ►Covalent bonds can form between unlike atoms making possible a vast number of molecular compounds: compounds that consist of molecules rather than ions. ► Water molecules consist of two hydrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds to an oxygen atom, ammonia molecules consist of three hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a nitrogen atom, and methane molecules consist of four hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a carbon atom.

11 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 11 Note that in all these examples, each atom shares enough electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration: two electrons for hydrogen, and octets for oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon.

12 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 12 Number of bonds formed to achieve octet (Numbers in parentheses indicate possible numbers of bonds that result in exceptions to the octet rule.)

13 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Multiple Covalent Bonds ►The bonding in some molecules cannot be explained by the sharing of only two electrons between atoms. ► ►The only way the atoms in CO 2 and N 2 can have octets is by sharing more than two electrons.

14 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 14 ►Single bond: A covalent bond formed by sharing one electron pair. ►Double bond: A covalent bond formed by sharing two electron pairs. ►Triple bond: A covalent bond formed by sharing three electron pairs. ►Just as a single bond is represented by a single line between atoms, a double bond is represented by two lines between atoms and a triple bond by three lines.

15 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 15 Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are the elements most often present in multiple bonds.

16 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 16 ►Ethylene, a simple compound used commercially to induce ripening in fruit, has the formula C 2 H 4. ►The only way for the 2 carbon atoms to have octets is for them to share 4 electrons in a double bond:

17 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 17 ►Acetylene, the gas used in welding, has the formula C 2 H 2. ►To achieve octets, two carbons share six electrons in a triple bond. ►In compounds with multiple bonds like ethylene and acetylene, each carbon atom still forms a total of four covalent bonds.

18 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Coordinate Covalent Bonds Coordinate covalent bond: The covalent bond that forms when both electrons are donated by the same atom.

19 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 19 ►The ammonium ion, is an example of a species with a coordinate covalent bond. ► ►Coordination compounds are an entire class of substances based on the ability of transition metals to form coordinate covalent bonds with nonmetals. ► ►Essential metal ions are held in enzyme molecules by coordinate covalent bonds.

20 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structures ►Molecular formula: A formula that shows the numbers and kinds of atoms in one molecule of a compound. ►Structural formula: A molecular representation that shows the connections among atoms by using lines to represent covalent bonds. ►Lewis structure: A molecular representation that shows both the connections among atoms and the locations of lone-pair valence electrons.

21 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 21 ► ►The oxygen atom in H 2 O shares 2 electron pairs with two hydrogen atoms and has 2 other pairs of valence electrons that are not shared in bonds. ► ► Such unshared pairs of valence electrons are called lone pairs. ► ► In NH 3, 3 electron pairs are used in bonds and there is 1 lone pair; in CH 4, all 4 pairs are bonding.

22 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Drawing Lewis Structures ►H, C, N, O, and halogen atoms usually maintain consistent bonding patterns: ►H forms one covalent bond. ►C forms four covalent bonds. ►N forms three covalent bonds and has one lone pair of electrons. ►O forms two covalent bonds and has two lone pairs of electrons. ►Halogens form one covalent bond and have three lone pairs of electrons.

23 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 23 ►Some Lewis structures can be assembled like a puzzle. Each piece an atom, fitting together by connecting bonding sites. Others require more hints. ►Find the number of e - needed to satisfy each atom separately, 2e - for H and 8e - for all other atoms. Add up the number of valence electrons you actually have. If the octet rule is obeyed, then: ►#e - you need - #e - you have = #e - you must share.

24 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 24 ►Ethane is an example of a structure that can be made simply by connecting 2C’s and 6H’s at available bonding sites. For acetaldehyde, a hint helps. ►4H’s need 8e -, 2C’s and 1O need 24e -,we need 32e -. 4H’s have 4e -, 2C’s have 8e -, and 1O has 6e -, we have 18e -. (32e e - = 14e - ) It helps to know that 14e - must be shared in 7 bonds and the 4e - left over must form 2 unshared lone pairs.

25 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five The Shapes of Molecules ►Molecular shapes can be predicted by noting how many bonds and electron pairs surround individual atoms and applying what is called the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model. ►The basic idea of the VSEPR model is that the negatively charged clouds of electrons in bonds and lone pairs repel each other, and keep as far apart as possible.

26 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 26 There are three step to applying the VSEPR model: ►Step 1:Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule, and identify the atom whose geometry is of interest. ►Step 2:Count the number of electron charge clouds surrounding the atom of interest. ►Step 3:Predict molecular shape by assuming that the charge clouds orient in space so that they are as far away from one another as possible.

27 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 27

28 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 28 ►Linear molecules have bond angles of 180°. ►Planar triangular molecules have bond angles of 120°. ►Tetrahedral molecules have bond angles of 109.5°.

29 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity ►Electrons in a covalent bond occupy the region between the bonded atoms. ►If the atoms are identical, as in H 2 and Cl 2, electrons are attracted equally to both atoms and are shared equally. ►If the atoms are not identical, however, as in HCl, the bonding electrons may be attracted more strongly by one atom than by the other and thus shared unequally. Such bonds are known as polar covalent bonds.

30 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 30 When charges separate in a neutral molecule, the molecule has a dipole moment and is said to be polar.

31 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 31 ►In HCl, electrons spend more time near the chlorine than the hydrogen. Although the molecule is overall neutral, the chlorine is more negative than the hydrogen, resulting in partial charges on the atoms. ►Partial charges are represented by a  - on the more negative atom and  + on the more positive atom. ►The ability of an atom to attract electrons is called the atom’s electronegativity. ►Fluorine, the most electronegative element, assigned a value of 4, and less electronegative atoms assigned lower values.

32 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 32 Elements at the top right of the periodic table are most electronegative, those at the lower left are least electronegative. Noble gases are not assigned values.

33 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 33 ►As a rule of thumb, electronegativity differences of less than 0.5 result in nonpolar covalent bonds, differences up to 1.9 indicate increasingly polar covalent bonds, and differences of 2 or more indicate ionic bonds. ►There is no sharp dividing line between covalent and ionic bonds; most bonds fall somewhere in-between.

34 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Polar Molecules ►Entire molecules can be polar if electrons are attracted more strongly to one part of the molecule than to another. ►Molecules polarity is due to the sum of all individual bond polarities and lone-pair contribution in the molecule. ►Polarity has a dramatic effect on the physical properties of molecules, particularly on melting points, boiling points, and solubility.

35 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 35 ►Dipoles or polarity can be represented by an arrow pointing to the negative end of the molecule with a cross at the positive end resembling a + sign.

36 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 36 ►Just because a molecule has polar covalent bonds does not mean that the molecule is polar overall. ►Carbon dioxide and tetrachloromethane molecules have no net polarity because their symmetrical shapes cause the individual bond polarities to cancel each other out.

37 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Naming Binary Molecular Compounds ►The formulas of binary molecular compounds are written with the less electronegative element first. ►Name the first element in the formula, using a prefix to indicate the number of atoms. ►Name the second element in the formula, using the ending -ide as for anions along with a prefix if needed.

38 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 38 The prefix mono- is omitted for the first element.

39 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 39 The structures and names of several binary molecular compounds are shown below.

40 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five Characteristics of Molecular Compounds

41 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 41 Chapter Summary ►A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms rather than by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another. ►Two shared electrons are a single bond, four are a double bond, and six are a triple bond. ►The group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. ►When a lone pair of electrons on one atom overlaps a vacant orbital on another atom a coordinate covalent bond is formed. ►An atom shares enough electrons to reach a noble gas configuration.

42 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 42 Chapter Summary Contd. ►Molecular formulas show the numbers and kinds of atoms in a molecule. ►Lewis structures show how atoms are connected in molecules. ►Covalent bonds are indicated as lines between atoms, and valence electron lone pairs are shown as dots. ►Molecules have shapes that can be predicted using the VSEPR model. ►The electronic geometry of atoms with 2 electron charge clouds is linear, with 3 it is planar triangular, and with 4 it is tetrahedral.

43 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 43 Chapter Summary Contd. ►Bonds between atoms are polar if the bonding electrons are not shared equally between the atoms. ►The ability of an atom to attract electrons is electronegativity. It is highest on the upper right of the periodic table and lowest on the lower left. ►Molecular polarity is the sum of all individual bond polarities and lone pair contributions in a molecule. ►Molecular compounds usually have lower melting points and boiling points than ionic compounds, many are water insoluble, and they do not conduct electricity when melted or dissolved.

44 Prentice Hall © 2007 Chapter Five 44 End of Chapter 5


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