2MagnetsPoles of a magnet are the ends where objects are most strongly attractedTwo poles, called north and southLike poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each otherIf a permanent magnetic is cut in half repeatedly, you will still have a north and a south poleThere are no magnetic charges or monopoles
3Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles Iron filings are used to show the pattern of the electric field linesThe direction of the field is the direction a north pole would pointCompare to the electric field produced by an electric dipole
4Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles Iron filings are used to show the pattern of the electric field linesThe direction of the field is the direction a north pole would pointCompare to the electric field produced by like charges
5Magnetic and Electric Fields An electric field surrounds any stationary electric chargeA magnetic field surrounds any moving electric chargeA magnetic field surrounds any magnetic material
6Earth’s Magnetic Field The Earth’s magnetic field resembles that achieved by burying a huge bar magnet deep in the Earth’s interiorThe most likely source of the Earth’s magnetic field is believed to be electric currents in the liquid part of the core
7Magnetic FieldsWhen moving through a magnetic field, a charged particle experiences a magnetic forcewhose magnitude is given byF=q v B sinqwhereB – magnetic fieldq – chargev – its speedq - the angle between the direction of V and the direction of B
8Units of Magnetic Field The SI unit of magnetic field B is the Tesla (T)Wb is a WeberThe cgs unit is a Gauss (G)1 T = 104 G
9Finding the Direction of Magnetic Force Experiments show that the direction of the magnetic force is always perpendicular to both v and BFmax occurs when v is perpendicular to BF = 0 when v is parallel to B
10Right Hand Rule Point your fingers in the direction of v Curl your fingers in the direction of BThe direction of the force on a positive charge is directed along the thumbIf the charge is negative, the force is opposite that determined by the right hand rule
11QUICK QUIZ 19.1A charged particle moves in a straight line through a certain region of space. The magnetic field in that region (a) has a magnitude of zero, (b) has a zero component perpendicular to the particle's velocity, or (c) has a zero component parallel to the particle's velocity.
12QUICK QUIZ 19.2The north-pole end of a bar magnet is held near a stationary positively charged piece of plastic. Is the plastic (a) attracted, (b) repelled, or (c) unaffected by the magnet?
13Conceptual questions5. How can the motion of a charged particle be used to distinguish between a magnetic and electric fields in a certain region?6. Which way would a compass point if you were at the north magnetic pole of the Earth?
14Problem 19.2Find the direction of the force on a proton moving through the magnetic fields shown in Fig Repeat for the electron.
16Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Conductor A force is exerted on a current-carrying wire placed in a magnetic fieldF = B I l sinql – length of the conductorI – current in the conductorThe direction of the force is given by right hand rule
18Problem An unusual message delivery system is pictured in Figure P A 15-cm length of conductor that is free to move is held in place between two thin conductors. When a 5.0-A current is directed as shown in the figure, the wire segment moves upward at a constant velocity. If the mass of the wire is 15 g, find the magnitude and direction of the minimum magnetic field that is required to move the wire.
19Torque on a Current Loop N is the number of turns in the coilt = N B I A sinq
20Electric MotorAn electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energyAn electric motor consists of a current-carrying loop that rotates when placed in a magnetic field
21Problem A rectangular loop consists of 100 closely wrapped turns and has dimensions 0.40 m by 0.30 m. The loop is hinged along the y axis, and the plane of the coil makes an angle of 30.0° with the x axis. What is the magnitude of the torque exerted on the loop by a uniform magnetic field of 0.80 T directed along the x axis, when the current in the windings has a value of 1.2 A in the direction shown? What is the expected direction of rotation of the loop?
23Force on a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field The magnetic force causes a centripetal acceleration, changing the direction of the velocity of the particleSolving for r:
24Quiz 19.3As a charged particle moves freely in a circular path in the presence of a constant magnetic field applied perpendicular to the particle's velocity, its kinetic energy (a) remains constant, (b) increases, (c) decreases.
26Problem Consider the mass spectrometer shown schematically below. The electric field between the plates of the velocity selector is 950 V/m, and the magnetic fields in both the velocity selector and the deflection chamber have magnitudes of T. Calculate the radius of the path in the system for a singly charged ion with mass m = 2.18 × 10–26 kg.
27Magnetic Fields – Long Straight Wire A current-carrying wire produces a magnetic fieldThe compass needle points in the direction of the magnetic field produced by the currentThe magnitude of the field at a distance r from a wire carrying a current of I isµo = 4 x 10-7 T m / Aµo is called the permeability of free space
28Direction of the Field of a Long Straight Wire Right Hand Rule #2Grasp the wire in your right handPoint your thumb in the direction of the currentYour fingers will curl in the direction of the field
29Problem 19-34What is the direction of the current in the wire in figures a, b, and c?
30Problem 19. 40. The two wires in figure below carry currents of 3 Problem The two wires in figure below carry currents of 3.00 A and 5.00 A in the direction indicated. (a) Find the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field at a point midway between the wires. (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at point P, located 20.0 cm above the wire carrying the 5.00-A current.
31Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors The force on wire 1 is due to the current in wire 1 and the magnetic field produced by wire 2The force per unit length is:
32QUICK QUIZ 19.5If I1 = 2 A and I2 = 6 A in the figure below, which of the following is true: (a) F1 = 3F2, (b) F1 = F2, or (c) F1 = F2/3?
33Problem In Figure, the current in the long, straight wire is I1 = 5.00 A, and the wire lies in the plane of the rectangular loop, which carries 10.0 A. The dimensions are c = m, a = m, and L = m. Find the magnitude and direction of the net force exerted by the magnetic field due to the straight wire on the loop.
34Magnetic Field of a Current Loop All the segments, Δx, contribute to the field, increasing its strengthMagnetic field at the center of the ring isB=m I/2R
36Magnetic Field of a Solenoid If a long straight wire is bent into a coil of several closely spaced loops, the resulting device is called a solenoidIt is also known as an electromagnet since it acts like a magnet only when it carries a current
37Magnetic Field in a Solenoid, Magnitude The magnitude of the field inside a solenoid is constant at all points far from its endsB = µo n In is the number of turns per unit lengthn = N / ℓ
38Magnetic Effects of Electrons - Orbits An individual atom should act like a magnet because of the motion of the electrons about the nucleusEach electron circles the atom once in about every secondsThis would produce a current of 1.6 mA and a magnetic field of about 20 T at the center of the circular pathHowever, the magnetic field produced by one electron in an atom is often canceled by an oppositely revolving electron in the same atomThe net result is that the magnetic effect produced by electrons orbiting the nucleus is either zero or very small for most materials
39Magnetic Effects of Electrons -- Spins Electrons also have spinThe classical model is to consider the electrons to spin like topsIn some materials, the spins do not naturally cancelSuch materials are called ferromagnetic
40Magnetic Effects of Electrons -- Domains In some materials, the spins do not naturally cancelSuch materials are called ferromagneticLarge groups of atoms in which the spins are aligned are called domainsWhen an external field is applied, the domains that are aligned with the field tend to grow at the expense of the othersThis causes the material to become magnetized
41DomainsLarge groups of atoms in which the spins are aligned are called domainsWhen an external field is applied, the domains that are aligned with the field tend to grow at the expense of the othersThis causes the material to become magnetizedRandom alignment, a, shows an unmagnetized materialWhen an external field is applied,the domains aligned with B grow, b
42Conceptual questions: 8. A magnet attracts a piece of iron. The iron can then attract another piece of iron. On the basis of domain alignment explain what happens in each piece of iron.12. Why does hitting a magnet with a hammer cause the magnetism to be reduced?16. How can a current loop be used to determine the presence of a magnetic field in a given region of space?17. A hanging Slinky toy is attached to a powerful battery and a switch. When the switch is closed so that the current flows through the Slinky, does the Slinky compress or expand?
43Magnetic levitation train (maglev) Japanese MLX01 can travel at speeds over 500 km/h (310 mi/h)
44Review questions1.What is the force on a 1 C charge moving at 1 m/s perpendicular to a magnetic field with a strength of 1 tesla?A. 0 N B. 1 NC. 2 N D. 3 N2. The SI unit for the magnetic field strength is a:A. wortle B. newtonC. tesla D. volt-meter
453. All of the following are true EXCEPT: a. breaking a magnet in half will create two magnets each with equal and opposite polesb. the magnetic north pole is near the geographic south polec. like poles and charges repel, opposite attractd. a stationary charge close to a magnetic needle can move that needle.
46True or False. Consider a force on a charge moving through a constant magnetic field. The direction of the force depends on the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field.The force is always perpendicular to both the velocity and the magnetic field.The force is always parallel to both the velocity and the magnetic field.The force is maximum when the velocity is in the same direction as the magnetic field.
47MCATA beam of electrons is traveling to the right. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point A?A. into the page B. out of the pageC. to the rightD. to the leftA
48MCAT, cont.1. A current I is flowing clockwise through a wire loop. Point P is in the middle of the loop. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P?out of the page b. to the rightc. into the page d. to the left2. In the above example, a proton is at point P and moving upward, in the plane of the page. What is the direction of the acceleration of the proton?to the left b. to the rightup, that is speeding up the protondown, that is slowing down the proton