Presentation on theme: "Florida’s IV-E Waiver Mary I. Armstrong, Ph.D. Cathy Sowell, L.C.S.W. Svetlana Yampolskaya, Ph.D September 6, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Florida’s IV-E Waiver Mary I. Armstrong, Ph.D. Cathy Sowell, L.C.S.W. Svetlana Yampolskaya, Ph.D September 6, 2012
TITLE IV-E WAIVER - OVERVIEW Authorized by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and implemented statewide in October, 2006 Allowed the use of federal foster care funds for a wide variety of child welfare purposes rather than being restricted to out-of-home care, as is normally the case under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act Permitted funds to be used for a broader array of child welfare services and supports to improve permanency and safety outcomes for all children who enter the child welfare system with an allegation of maltreatment
EVALUATION DESIGN Hypothesis 1: Over the life of the demonstration project, fewer children will need to enter out-of-home care Hypothesis 2: Over the life of the demonstration project, there will be improvements in child outcomes, including child permanency, safety, and well-being Hypothesis 3: Waiver implementation will lead to changes in or expansion of the existing child welfare service array for many, if not all, of the lead agencies. Consistent with the Community-Based Care (CBC) model, the new flexibility of funds will be used differently by each lead agency, based on the unique needs of the communities they serve Hypothesis 4: Expenditures associated with out-of-home care will decrease following Waiver implementation, while expenditures associated with prevention and in-home services will increase, although no new dollars will be spent as a result of Waiver implementation
EVALUATION DESIGN Analysis Components Programmatic Outcomes Analysis: Examined the effect of IV-E Waiver implementation on lead agency performance and outcomes for children, based on administrative data analysis. Florida Safe Families Network (FSFN) was used as the primary source of data, in addition to data reports produced by DCF. Family Assessment and Services Analysis: Examined the process used by CBC organizations to assess family needs in order to plan for/provide appropriate services and understand the extent to which families are involved and satisfied with the services received. Data were collected via focus groups, interviews, DCF Regional Quality Assurance reviews, and the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect.
EVALUATION DESIGN Analysis Components Child Welfare Practice Analysis: Assessed changes in CBC lead agency practices since Waiver implementation. Specifically, strategies were identified that were intended to: prevent child abuse, neglect, and out-of- home placement, engage families in service planning/provision, increase permanency, and reduce lengths of stay in out-of-home care. Primary data sources included a lead agency survey, interviews, focus groups, and supplementary materials. Cost Analysis: Examined the relationship between Waiver implementation and changes in the use of child welfare funding sources. Expenditure data were provided by the DCF Office of Revenue Management and lead agencies, and qualitative data regarding changes in the use of child welfare funding sources were collected via interviews with relevant stakeholders.
EVALUATION DESIGN Analysis Components Implementation Analysis: Examined and tracked the implementation process and assessed the system-level impact of the Waiver on the state’s child welfare system, including CBC lead agencies, provider networks, child protection units, local communities, judges, and DCF. Data were collected via interviews, document reviews, and focus groups.
FINDINGS Contextual and Organizational Factors Affecting Waiver Implementation Facilitators Philosophy of Care Organizational Efficiencies Communication and Collaboration Community Perception and Involvement
Contextual and Organizational Factors Affecting Waiver Implementation Challenges Pace of Implementation Education Needs Recruitment and Retention of Case Managers Fiscal Challenges Contextual Challenges
Hypothesis 2: Child and Family Outcomes Permanency Indicators Proportion of children who achieved permanency within 12 months of removal Proportion of children who were either reunified or placed with relatives within 12 months of removal Proportion of children who were adopted within 24 months of removal Median length of stay in out-of-home care Proportion of children experiencing two or fewer placements within 12 months of removal
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children exiting OOH care who achieved permanency within 12 months of removal
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children reunified or place with relatives within 12 months of removal Waiver Implementation
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children with adoption finalized within 24 months of removal Waiver Implementation
Hypothesis 2 Median length of stay for children who entered OOH care and exited for any reason Waiver Implementation
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children experiencing two or fewer placements within 12 months of removal
Hypothesis 2 Strategies used to promote permanency Supports for relative caregivers Efforts to increase timely adoptions Changes in practice when children are placed in shelter Concurrent changes in the judicial system
Hypothesis 2 Stakeholder perspectives on strategies for placement stability Timely and appropriate assessment of children and matching to services Foster home recruitment Retention and capacity Identifying and supporting relative placements Providing behavioral support training to all placement types Targeted review committees
Hypothesis 2 Safety Indicators Proportion of children who exited out-of-home care and re-entered within 12 months Proportion of children with recurrence of maltreatment within six months of service termination
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children re-entering OOH care within 12 months after exiting for reasons of reunification Waiver Implementation
Hypothesis 2 Proportion of children who were maltreated with six months after service termination Waiver Implementation
Hypothesis 2 Stakeholder perspectives on re-entry into OOH care Lack of agreement about reunification decisions between legal services, the judiciary, Guardians ad Litem, parents, and the lead agency Need for supportive services for guardians – continuum of care Need plan for alternative placements at time of reunification Treatment services and community supports need to be in place before and after reunification
Hypothesis 2 Family Assessment and Services Analysis Data Source Florida DCF case management quality of practice reviews (QP)
Hypothesis 2 Family Assessment and Services Analysis
Hypothesis 2 Family Assessment and Services Analysis
Hypothesis 2 Family Assessment and Services Analysis
Hypothesis 3: Child Welfare Practice Strategies to Prevent Child Abuse, Neglect, and the Need for Out-of-Home Placement Primary and Secondary Prevention Initiatives Enhanced community information and referral services Collaborative community campaigns and partnerships between CBC lead agencies, faith-based organizations, DCF, schools, and other provider organizations Neighborhood service centers (e.g., Cassat House and the Library Partnership) Expansion of domestic violence prevention services
Hypothesis 3 Strategies to Prevent Child Abuse, Neglect, and the Need for Out-of-Home Placement Tertiary Prevention Strategies Increased use of strategies to connect families with resources and supports at the initial stage of contact with the child protection/welfare system Intensive in-home family preservation services Increased capacity of in-home parent education and intervention programs (e.g., Nurturing Parent Program, Parenting with Love and Limits) Increased use of flex funds to purchase items or services such as beds, utility payments or rent assistance
Hypothesis 3 Strategies to Engage Families in Service Planning Increased availability of family team conferencing or family group decision making Increased availability of services and practices to engage and support relative and non-relative caregivers Implementation of family-centered practice model Reduction in caseload size
Hypothesis 3 Strategies to Increase Permanency and Reduce Lengths of Stay in OOH Care Addition of permanency specialists Use of Family Finding to locate supportive connections and potential permanent families Implementing evidence-based child welfare practice models (e.g., solution- based casework, Structured Decision Making) Supportive services for foster parents such as foster parent liasions, foster parent mentoring programs, Quality Parenting Initiative Enhanced visitation and reunification support and adoption support services
Hypothesis 3 Strategies to Improve Child and Family Well-Being Educational liaisons/specialists Nurse liaisons/specialists Increased capacity of medical foster care Increased availability of behavior analysts and behavior management services
Hypothesis 4: Cost Analysis Assessment of Fiscal Effectiveness Extent to which CBC lead agencies invested a larger proportion of child welfare services funds on front-end services How key funding sources were used Reduction in IV-E administrative costs
Hypothesis 4 Ratio of OOH care expenditures to prevention/ diversion/family preservation/in-home expenditures by federal fiscal year
Hypothesis 4 Child welfare expenditures by federal fiscal year by type of service (in million $) Type of Service FFY 04-05 FFY 05-06 FFY 06-07 FFY 07-08 FFY 08-09 FFY 09-10 FFY 10-11 FFY 10-11 minus FFY 04-05 % Change Licensed out- of-home care 163.4194.4 184.0167.5144.9134.1133.7-29.7-18.2 Dependency case management 312.4384.7 315.1325.6311.5310.8310.5-1.9-0.6 Front-end services 15.016.2 29.4 27.6 30.9 38.6 45.7 30.7205.4 Other 124.7122.5 78.8 88.5102.0121.1121.0 -3.7-3.0 Total 615.5717.8 607.3609.1589.4604.7610.9-4.6-0.7 NOTE: Some totals and differences may be off by one decimal place due to rounding.
Hypothesis 4 Changes in Spending by Fund Source Allowed Florida’s child welfare system to access 100% of the federally- appropriated IV-E funds each year since Waiver implementation The more flexible use of IV-E funds enabled a much greater use of State funds for front-end services. The largest increase in categorical spending of State funds during the Waiver period occurred with non-Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) funds for prevention, intervention, and in-home supports. Spending increased from $27.6 million in FFY 04-05 to $68.9 million in SFY 11-12.
Hypothesis 4 Fiscal Issues Pertinent to Waiver Implementation Funding flexibility Funding challenges Shifting resources from OOH care Directing resources toward creative prevention strategies
Recommendations Pursue renewal of the IV-E Waiver. The financial flexibility afforded by the Waiver has enabled CBC lead agencies to increase spending for prevention, diversion, family preservation, and other in-home services that are viable substitutes for out-of-home care for many children and families With renewal of the IV-E Waiver, flexible funds should be used to improve permanency and safety outcomes for children with physical and emotional problems CBC lead agencies should continue their efforts to address safety issues and to prevent re-entry into out-of-home care
Recommendations Improvement is needed in the areas of the ongoing assessment of fathers’ needs, the frequency of case manager visits, assessing children’s dental health needs, supporting parents’ participation in case planning, and providing physical and dental health services to children Provide guidance to CBC lead agencies to ensure administrative costs are reported in a consistent manner The legislature, DCF, CBC lead agencies, and community providers should devise a strategy to facilitate more even distribution of services and supports available to children and families involved in the child welfare system to ensure adequate access across all individuals, especially in rural areas
Mary Armstrong: firstname.lastname@example.org@usf.edu Cathy Sowell: email@example.com@usf.edu Svetlana Yampolskaya: firstname.lastname@example.org@usf.edu Evaluation reports, briefs, and topical papers: Florida's Center for Child Welfare http://centerforchildwelfare.fmhi.usf.edu/DataReports/ IVEReport.shtml