Presentation on theme: "Service Delivery 4 Explosives. Aim To make students aware of the operational procedures for dealing with incidents involving explosives and the marking."— Presentation transcript:
Aim To make students aware of the operational procedures for dealing with incidents involving explosives and the marking systems in use to identify them.
Learning Outcomes At the end of the session students will be able to: Identify the hazards and risks associated with explosives Understand the marking systems used to identify explosives Be aware of the operational procedures for dealing with incidents involving explosives.
Nature of explosives All chemical explosives contain fuel and oxygen Burn extremely quickly producing large quantities of hot gasses
Nature of explosives ‘Low Explosives’ deflagrate at subsonic low velocity up to 100m/sec. ‘High Explosives’ propagate at supersonic high velocity 1-10Km/sec producing a blast wave
Classification and Labelling of Explosives Regulations 1983 Based on the UN system of 9 classes of dangerous goods:
Classification and labelling Class 1 explosives are sub-divided into hazard divisions; 1.1Mass explosion hazard 1.2Projection hazard, no mass explosion 1.3Fire hazard, minor blast and/or minor projection, no mass explosion.
Classification and labelling 1.4Substances or articles that present no significant hazard 1.5Very insensitive substances that have a mass explosion hazard 1.6Extremely insensitive articles that do not have a mass explosion hazard.
Labelling UN Class 1 explosive. Hazard division Compatibility group
Marking of vehicles Placarded vehicles may carry up to 16 tonnes of explosives. Danger signs & subsidiary danger signs (if any)
Exemptions The Armed Forces are not subject to requirement for placarding but the Ministry of Defence through its Explosives Storage and Transport Committee have voluntarily adopted a similar placarding system.
Transport All vehicles carrying explosives must be regarded as potentially hazardous Division 1.1 explosives present the major hazard.
Transport The incident commander will decided the extent to which fire fighting or rescues might be attempted having regard to the hazard and life risk The primary objective must be to evacuate the public to at least 600 metres.
Firefighting It is vitally important that we differentiate between a fire or risk of fire that is; On or near the vehicle but not affecting the load, nor likely to, and; An established fire involving the load or threatening to spread to it.
Firefighting Where the fire does not involve the load such as a tyre or fire in the vehicle cab priority must be given to extinguishing the fire before it involves the load.
Firefighting If the fire involves the load or is threatening it; Every possible effort must be directed toward evacuating the area Only where this is clearly not possible and the rapid application of water would have a good chance should firefighters be committed.
Protection Firefighters should not be committed unless they are protected by an earth banking or other substantial structure at some distance from the incident An un-buttressed double brick wall may not provide adequate protection.
Effects of explosions Vehicle parts Packagings Explosive debris Person being thrown into the air Being thrown against a solid object. Fatal injuries may arise from being struck by;
Effects of explosions kgtonnes 50516 99% survive lung damage6m38m80m 1% survive lung damage27m 50% eardrum rupture12m54m80m Missiles limit of throw.150m250m2000m Some examples of the effects of explosions on persons of ‘average’ fitness;
Protection from explosions To be protected requires; Distance Substantial cover Small buildings or vehicles offer little protection Get below ground level if possible Or behind thick earth banking.
Radio communications 10 m 50 m 600 m No Radios Closer Than 10m No appliance radios closer than 50m Keep public back at least 600 metres.
The Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations 1996 Covers precautions against fire, explosion, theft and unauthorised access Prohibits carrying certain explosives Suitability of vehicle and freight containers Ensures mixed loads carried safely Placarding and marking of vehicles.
The Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations 1996 Ensures written information carried Supervision of vehicles Limits and duration of carriage Training of drivers and assistants.
Explosives The driver of the vehicle must carry in writing the following details in a consignment document; Division and compatibility group of each explosive carried Net mass of each explosive carried Name & address of consignor If groups C,D or G whether it is a substance or article.
Suspect devices Avoid the use of lights or any other warning devices A 200m incident zone will have been established within which the use of radio equipment is strictly prohibited.
Suspect devices A message should be passed to Brigade Control confirming the type of device e.g. explosive or incendiary device If an incendiary then the normal predetermined attendance will be mobilised to the incident.
Bomb alerts Fire service personnel must not become involved in the search for any suspect devices or packages.
Health and safety Personnel should be alert to the possibility of an incorrect marking system being displayed As well as the normal hazards associated with explosives, personnel should also be aware of the possibility of toxic emissions from burning explosives.
Confirmation Assessment will be based on this lesson and the corresponding study note Learning Outcomes Identify the hazards and risks associated with explosives Understand the marking systems used to identify explosives Be aware of the operational procedures for dealing with incidents involving explosives.