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4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

2 4/9/2010 What is Upward Bound? A program that prepares students for college. Criteria: low-income and/or first generation

3 Why Low Income & First Generation? Inequities in educational opportunity in the past & present Why do inequities in learning exist? Theories of Intelligence ------->

4 Intelligence Theories in Education What is a Theory? A hypothesis about something -- explanation about observed facts. Why do people learn differently? 3 Major Theories to explain: Deficit Ecological Multiple Worlds

5 Deficit Theorists of the Past (Cultural &Genetic) Genetic Theorists claimed some people are less intelligent. Studies cited the poor and immigrants as those less intelligent. (Darwinian Theory) Original Scholastic Testing proved the point that certain groups were less intelligent and justified social status and placement Cultural Deficit Theory blamed social, cultural or economic environment (Engelmann & Bereiter) Modern Deficit Theory: “The Bell Curve”

6 STATS from the Bell Curve Richard J. Herrnstein, Ph.D. Psychology, Harvard University Charles Murray, Ph.D. Political Science, M.I.T. *Promotes the idea of using race as an indicator of intelligence or status

7 Criticism of the “Bell Curve” It is irrational to consider the differences in IQ scores between [cultural] groups relevant... In other words, within a group everyone faces similar things (cultural teachings, traditions, and values) and so is expected to perform similarly. Between groups, there are differences in the things they face. Each group has own traditions and values. For example, Eskimos are highly educated on differences in snow types. They consider this an essential thing in their culture and way of living. Does it mean that, because they give more importance to snow types than to solving arithmetic problems, they are not intelligent? Each group gives different values to individual things. It’s like comparing apples and oranges

8 Cultural Difference Theory (Erickson) Micro-ethnography: micro elements that affect learning Cultures create differences in what teachers emphasize in learning and in how students respond to learning Hit or Miss each other’s Cultural Blind Spots by interpreting the same thing differently or valuing different aspects of learning But did not explain why some teachers do well or spme students do well despite cultural differences

9 Cultural Ecological Theory (Ogbu) Macro-ethnography: focuses on the larger social influences which create differences. (ie. social class, immigration, historic oppression, etc…) Autonomous Minorities: culturally distinct, but culture is not devalued in society. Cast-like Minorities: Brought to the U.S. involuntarily, such as through slavery or colonization. May experience what is called “secondary cultural differences” from prolonged contact with a dominant culture that is different. This can create resistence. Immigrant Minorities: Came to U.S. voluntarily and may experience less hardship or need for resistence. What do you think?

10 Multiple Worlds Theory Idea that every student exists in multiple worlds of values, norms & beliefs Each student has a different level of negotiating or not negotiating the differences in each world Takes a macro and micro approach

11 Multiple Worlds Theory (Phelan, Davidson)

12 Ways Students Cope with Multiple Worlds Type 1 - no cultural differences, no negotiation needed Type 2 - some cultural differences, negotiation easy Type 3 - major cultural differences, negotiation hard, but managed. May become bi-cultural or assimilate. Type 4 - major differences, negotiation hard and not managed. May drop out.

13 Theories of Intelligence

14 Do you Remember? 1. What two criteria qualify you as a UB Student? 2.Name one class room expectation for Bolima? 3.Who's here next week? 4.Name one Theory of Intelligence? 5.What was the purpose for these theories? 6.Define micro-ethnography: 7.Who is John Ogbu? 8.What are voluntary minorities? 9.How are they different than involuntary minorities?

15 Free-Write: Part One: In consideration of the Multiple Worlds Theory, Identify any major differences in beliefs, values, norms, expectations or actions in your own worlds of peers, school and family. Discuss how you do or don’t negotiate differences in values from one world to the next. Part Two: What are your educational goals and how will you achieve them?

16 Research –The Breakfast of College Students (Champions) It sounds like a big task—but it really is not. Every class in college will ask you to do research UW is a research institution But what is research? Why is it important?

17 All theories begin with research…. It is why we know –the earth is round I want you to do a little research --it is silly, but I’m making a point What did you find out? And how?

18 Research by UB students Sr.Proj\Hee-Kyong.ppt Sr.Proj\Isabel07.ppt CWPages1-8Dec18.docx

19 Wed—Think about colleges! And a good research topic!

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