Presentation on theme: "SFE Program, 1996 Forest Harvesting: Best Management Practices: FOR 420 James Hart Feb 15, 2001 Adopted from a Doug Lantagne Forest Stewardship Presentation."— Presentation transcript:
SFE Program, 1996 Forest Harvesting: Best Management Practices: FOR 420 James Hart Feb 15, 2001 Adopted from a Doug Lantagne Forest Stewardship Presentation
SFE Program, 1996 Water Facts l Michigan –11,000 inland lakes –36,000 miles of rivers and streams –surrounded by the Great Lakes l The Point? –We Drink it! –What is done in the woods, on roads and in population centers may eventually reach water and affect us all!
SFE Program, 1996 Forest Facts l 50% of Michigan is forested l 57% is in private hands –> 10 million acres l < 5% use foresters(estimate) l 2 million hunters l 12 million anglers –$2 billion industry
SFE Program, 1996 Objectives l Describe need for water quality management l Describe a healthy stream l Describe impact of sedimentation/light l Describe impact of poor harvesting practices l Describe Best Management Practices l Explain the Water Quality Laws of Michigan
SFE Program, 1996 Biologically Healthy Streams l High insect species diversity –mayfly, stonefly, caddisfly dominate l Cold water l High oxygen content l Stable water flows l Good fishery l Riparian cover Patton, 1992 and Bond, 1996, Chamberlin, 1982
SFE Program, 1996 Physically Healthy Streams l Clean hard bottom l Pools and riffles l Numerous “niches” l Low nutrient inputs l Low turbidity l No toxic chemicals Patton, 1992 and Bond, 1996, Chamberlin, 1982
SFE Program, 1996 Degraded Streams l Embedded with soil sediment l Fewer habitat “niches” l Turbid water l Increased temperature/oxygen extremes l Depth decreased/width increased l Less stable water flows l Elevated nutrient levels Chamberlin, 1982
SFE Program, 1996 Biological Response l More surface insects in stream –less dependent on water oxygen levels l Food availability declines –fewer insects for fish –fewer plants for insects l Result is fewer insects and fish l Undesirable fish species increase numbers Wenger, 1982
SFE Program, 1996 Best Management Practices: The Right Idea must be Properly Implemented
SFE Program, 1996 Definitions l Permanent stream –regular flow of water with defined banks and a recognizable stream bed. l Intermittent stream –periodic flow of water related to precipitation (rain and snow). Recognizable bank, and bed. Change in vegetation within stream bed. Wenger, 1984
SFE Program, 1996 Definitions l Vernal ponds –occur as a seasonal pond in forested areas. Usually dry up partially or totally by mid- summer. Used by wildlife and plants. l Seeps –an area from which ground water reaches the soil surface. They are an important source of cold water for streams. Wenger, 1984
SFE Program, 1996 Potential Solutions to Harvesting Impacts l Care and concern –reduce chance of soil sedimentation in streams. –minimize litter and gas and oil spills. –help maintain riparian cover. l Follow through with action. l Improves professional image.
SFE Program, 1996 Best Management Practices l What are BMP’s? –voluntary guidelines to reduce the chance of soil movement into streams, lakes and ponds. –acceptable practices for road building and working in the forest. They are not laws! but Compliance is being monitored.
SFE Program, 1996 Laws or Ethics? BMP’s may become mandatory if they are not followed voluntarily!!!! Goal is the use of effective and cost-effective approaches to minimize soil erosion and maintain water quality.
SFE Program, 1996 Inland Lakes and Streams Act (P.A. 451, Part 301) Applicable to all waters greater than 5 acres in size except the Great Lakes PERMIT REQUIRED before dredging, filling, or interfering with natural flows. Administrator: MI DEQ, Land and Water Division
SFE Program, 1996 Inland Lakes and Streams Act (P.A. 451, Part 301) Permits required for ALL: l permanent stream crossings –intermittent stream crossings –temporary stream crossings –For culverts and bridges Administrator: MI DEQ, Land and Water Division
SFE Program, 1996 Floodplain Regulatory Authority (P.A. 451, Part 31) l Reviews plans for stream crossing structures such as bridges and culverts. l Stream crossings must meet 100 year flood capacity. l Determined as part of the review of the culvert or bridge permit.
SFE Program, 1996 Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control Act (P.A. 451, Part 91) Applies if natural cover or topography will be altered on 1 or more acres or within 500 feet of a lake or stream. Exempts Logging BUT not road construction Administrator: County based - ask local MIDEQ office
SFE Program, 1996 Wetlands Protection Act (P.A. 451, Part 303) Controls road building in wetlands next to lakes and streams and in wetlands over 5 acres in size. Temporary Logging roads are not subject to permits.
SFE Program, 1996 Wetlands Protection Act (P.A. 451, Part 303) No permit required if: l You employ BMP’s –sufficient cross culverts –minimum fill volume –minimum width –removal of fill –restore wetland area upon road closure Administered by: MIDEQ, Land and Water Division
SFE Program, 1996 Sand Dune Protection and Management Act (P.A. 451, Part 353) Protects certain critical dunes areas. Forest Management activities are subject to acquiring a permit. Administered by:Local Townships Offices have maps showing affected areas.
SFE Program, 1996 Michigan Environmental Protection Act (P.A. 451, Part 17) Right of any citizen to bring action against others for pollution or negative impact on air, water, and other natural resources!
SFE Program, 1996 Applying BMP Practices l Road layout and design –think ahead (use soil surveys) –locate area on maps –determine location of l landings l skid trails l haul roads l stream crossings MIDNR, 1994
SFE Program, 1996 Applying BMP Practices l Establishing buffer zones –100 foot minimum –increased width with slope –deviation is at the logger’s discretion –Limited timber harvest l no forest floor disturbance l maintain riparian shade l remove slash from buffer zone MIDNR, 1994
SFE Program, 1996 Applying BMP Practices l Plan Road Drainage –Direct and slow water l water diversion ditches l broad-based dips l water bars –Major Considerations l spacing of drainage control structures l proper road grades MIDNR, 1994
SFE Program, 1996 Applying BMP Practices l Stream crossing –determine correct culvert diameter. –length extends two feet beyond road. –locate at right angles to road bed. –place culvert into bed of stream. –road rises on approach to top of culvert. –stabilize soil surrounding the culvert end. MIDNR, 1994
SFE Program, 1996 Permitting Process l Fees (culverts) –$50 minor project (< 2 sq. mile drainage area) –$100 major project (> 2 sq. mile drainage area) l Timeline –varies widely, call local DEQ office. l Contact local DEQ to discuss project first. l Applications mailed to Lansing.
SFE Program, 1996 Steps to Permits l Road weight limits. –local road commission l Culverts in road ditches. –local road commission l Culvert and bridge permits. –MI DEQ l Road construction permits. –Varies by county l Dune permits. –MI DEQ
SFE Program, 1996 Acknowledgments This slide set is the work of many people, including Linda DePaul, MSUE Forest Stewardship Education Coordinator; Byron Sailor, DNR Forester; William Deephouse, DNR Stream Biologist who worked together to originally initiate BMP training in Michigan. Their work, combined with that of Russell Kidd, District Extension Agent; Robert Ojala, Oscoda Extension Director; Tom Barnes and Dave Andersen, SFE District Extension Agents; Rich Hausler, DNR BMP Coordinator; Douglas Lantagne, MSU Extension Specialist and others who reviewed parts of the presentation are all responsible for the production of this slide presentation on Best Management Practices in Michigan.
SFE Program, 1996 References l Bond, C.E. 1996. Biology of Fish. Second Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York. 750p. l Chamberlin, T.W. 1982. Influence of Forest and Rangeland Management on Anadromous Fish Habitat in Western North America: Timber Harvest. USDA Forest Service PNW Exp. Station General Technical Report PNW-136. 30p. l MIDNR. 1994. Water Quality Management Practices on Forest Land. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Lansing, MI. 77p. l Patton. D.R. 1992. Wildlife Habitat Relationships in Forested Ecosystems. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon. 392p. l Wenger, K.F.1984. Forestry Handbook, Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1335p.