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1 Introduction to Security Chapter 9 Preventing Losses from Criminal Actions.

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2 1 Introduction to Security Chapter 9 Preventing Losses from Criminal Actions

3 2 Enforcing Proprietary Rights  Not all crimes can be prevented.  Security officers are expected to act to protect the assets of their employers, and cannot always assume local authorities will handle the situation.  Some of these problems may not be actual violations of a criminal code, so they are security’s responsibility.

4 3 Proprietary Rights  Prevent trespassing  Control conduct of persons legally on the premises  Defend self, others and property  Prevent the commission of a crime

5 4 Criminal Offenses  Misdemeanor – a minor crime that is punishable by a fine and/or a relatively short jail sentence (less than a year)  Felony – a serious crime, such as murder, robbery or rape, which is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison system or death

6 5 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)  Statistics are voluntarily reported by nearly 17,000 law enforcement agencies, and compiled annually by the FBI.

7 6 2005 UCR results: 1 violent crime every 22.7 seconds 1 murder every 31.5 minutes 1 forcible rape every 5.6 minutes 1 robbery every 1.3 minutes 1 aggravated assault every 36.5 seconds 1 larceny-theft every 4.7 seconds 1 burglary every 14.6 seconds 1 motor vehicle theft every 25.5 seconds

8 7 Crimes of Concern to Private Security and Steps to Deal with Them: 1. Larceny/ Theft 2. Burglary 3. Robbery 4. Trespassing and Vandalism 5. Assault 6. Arson 7. White Collar & Economic Crime 8. Fraud 9. Computer Crime

9 8 Crimes of Concern to Private Security and Steps to Deal with Them: 1. Larceny/ Theft Limit access to assets Use basic security equipment and procedures to deter employee pilferage Use basic security equipment and procedures to deter non-employee theft

10 9 Where larceny/theft occurs:

11 10 2. Burglary  Defined as: “entering a structure without the owner’s consent with the intent to commit a crime.”  Although the crime is usually theft, it could also be something else such as rape or assault.

12 11 3. Robbery  Defined as: “the unlawful taking of personal property from the person or in the person’s presence, against the person’s will by force or threat of force.”

13 12 3. Robbery Robbery Prevention Steps: 1. Train employees how to react if a robbery occurs 2. Do not build up cash. Use armed couriers to transport cash. 3. Establish strict opening and closing procedures; use extreme caution if someone wants in after hours.

14 13 What to do if robbed: Stay calm Do exactly as you are told Assure the robber you will cooperate Treat any firearm displayed as if it were loaded Activate alarms only if you can do so undetected Try to alert others if possible

15 14 4. Trespassing and Vandalism  Trespassing: “the unlawful presence of a person on the property or inside the premises.”  Vandalism: “the malicious or intentional damaging or destroying of property.”

16 15 4. Trespassing and Vandalism Reducing trespassing and vandalism: Preventing or reducing access and using strict access controls Using security lighting Using signage to deter violators Utilize security patrols

17 16 5. Assault  “an attack on a person…”  Steps to combating assault: Adequate lighting Security patrols Communication systems (emergency light posts) Escort services to parking areas

18 17 6. Arson  Defined as: “the willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without the intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle, aircraft, or personal property of another…”

19 18 6. Arson  Motives: Financial gain through insurance fraud An attempt to hide another crime such as burglary or embezzlement Revenge Terrorism

20 19 6. Arson  Increase security for those areas commonly used to start fires.  Common sites for arson fires: Basements Storerooms Duplicating, file and mail rooms Utility closets

21 20 6. Arson  Possible indicators: More than 1 point of origin Deviate from normal burn patterns Evidence of trailers Evidence of accelerants Presence of ignitors Telltale odors or smoke colors

22 21 7. White-Collar or Economic Crime  These are business-related crimes  There may be only one individual involved or it may be a larger conspiracy.  Examples: Identity theft Tax offenses Securities theft Environmental offenses Embezzlement Bribes

23 22 8. Fraud  Fraud comes in many forms, so security managers must be very diligent to combat it.  Identity theft has evolved into a very serious and pervasive threat to both consumer and the financial services industry.

24 23 9. Computer Crime  Also known as “cybercrime”  Computers are the heart of most business operations/ communications systems – that makes them an attractive and potentially catastrophic target for criminals

25 24 9. Computer Crime Types of threats: Employees snooping through confidential files Theft of trade secrets Alteration of input data (altering grades, fictitious suppliers entered to divert funds) Changing computer time to allow employees to steal time

26 25 9. Computer Crime Detecting and Reporting: By its very nature, computer crime is relatively easy to commit and tough to detect. Only a small number are actually detected. Of those detected, only 12% are reported to authorities and only 3% of those offenders go to jail. Thus, the chance of committing a computer crime and going to jail is 1:27,000.

27 26 9. Computer Crime Investigating: We may need the help of an outside professional to help investigate computer crime. Be aware many law enforcement agencies do not possess the equipment or expertise to effectively investigate cybercrime. We need to be prepared to work with several agencies as the investigation crosses state/ national borders.

28 27 Computer Security Program Recommendations: Have strict access control Maintain up-to-date protection software Remove paper printout sheets from computer areas Avoid contact with recording surfaces of disks Never use paper clips or rubber bands on disks Establish a backup system

29 28 Expelling, Detaining, Searching and Arresting  The most important part of this sensitive area is to know exactly what local and state statutes allow security personnel to do.  This is especially important when a security manager is responsible for security personnel in different jurisdictions.

30 29 Expelling, Detaining, Searching and Arresting  Many states allow security personnel to: Detain suspected shoplifters Make a citizen’s arrest of persons who have committed a misdemeanor in their presence Make a citizen’s arrest of persons whom they have probable cause committed a felony

31 30 Expelling, Detaining, Searching and Arresting Use of Force Force can be used only when and to the extent it is necessary. Deadly force can only be used to protect human life. Training and documentation of training is critical.

32 Searching  The law clearly establishes the right of an arresting officer to search a person.  Most security searches do not involve an arrest. They are conducted based on company policy.  Conduct searches in private, have a witness to the search if possible, searcher should be same sex as person searched. 31

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