2 Chapter 10Civil RightsThe government of the United States protects the freedoms of its people and provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
3 Content StatementHistorically, the United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation.
4 Section 1: Citizenship and Immigration ***Citizens only can vote, hold elected office, and serve on juries. The Constitution and Congress have established the ways people may become U.S. citizens and the ways their citizenship may be lost.
5 Becoming a United States Citizen Being born to US citizensBeing born in the US or in a US territoryJus sanguinis—if 1 parent is a US citizen and you are born in a foreign countryA. By Birth
6 Becoming a United States Citizen Be a lawful resident of the US for 5 continuous years18 years oldCompletes a citizenship applicationIs able to speak, read, and write EnglishDemonstrates good moral character, belief in the principles of the Constitution, and knowledge of US history and governmentSupports the order and happiness of the United StatesTakes an oath of allegiance to the United States at a swearing-in ceremonyB. Through naturalization—legal way immigrants become US citizens
8 Denaturalization—Losing Citizenship Is this possible?If so, what would a person have to do to be denaturalized?
9 Denaturalization Person became a US citizen by fraud Expatriation—when a person voluntarily gives up their citizenshipLied about background or provides other false info during the naturalization processA person is naturalized as a citizen or pledging allegiance to another country
10 Section 2: Diversity and Equal Protection Concern over the number of newcomers coming into the US has led to efforts to restrict immigration. The US has both benefited and suffered from immigration over the years.
11 Immigration Policies—they have changed over the years A. Unrestricted immigrationBefore late 1800’s—anybody could come to the USLandJobsFreedomCompetition for land and jobs led to tension around 1900.
12 B. Immigration Restrictions Hostility toward immigrants led Congress over time to restrict immigration1882—Congress passed a tax on those who entered the country1882—Congress passed law that denied entry for convicted criminals1882—Congress passed law that banned all Chinese (California—Chinese immigrants took less money to do jobs—this took jobs away from the natives)1900—restricted Japanese immigration1921 and 1924—set limits for immigrants on each countryAmounts favored western European countries
13 C. Immigration Policy Today 1950’s—100 per Asian country allowed1965: Immigration and Nationality Act290,000/year120,000/Western Europe170,000/other countries1990: Immigration Act—675,000Today: many more from Asian and Latin American countries allowed inCurrent Immigration Policy in the United States
14 Pro/Con of Illegal Immigration D. Illegal immigrationMillions of illegals in US todayIllegal aliens—do not have immigration papersDeported if caughtAmnesty—general pardon that gov gives to people who have broken a lawGov has allowed illegal immigrants amnesty—if they can prove they have been here for a certain length, they can be given citizenship1996: Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996—increased border patrol and provided for stronger penalties for creating and using false ID papersPro/Con of Illegal Immigration
15 A Nation of Diversity Benefits Mix of people, culture, and traditions Foods, music, literature, and celebrationsCreativityChinatown, Polish Village, Little ItalyChallengesPrejudice in hiring, firing, promotionsDiscrimination
16 Section 3: Struggle for Civil Rights ***Civil rights: powers or privileges that governments grant to individuals to guarantee their equal treatment under the law
17 Equal Protection of the Law state gov may not “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws”THIS IS THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE!!!!!!!A. 14th Amendmentat times, gov. can distinct between peopleEx: charge people to come into a park. Non-park users do not payB. Reasonable distinction
18 When is discrimination considered reasonable? 2 guidelines A. Rational basis testIf gov has a rational reason Ex: drinking ageB. Strict Scrutiny TestInvolve cases where gov makes distinctions between people based on race or national originThis usually does not happenExample: Korematsu vs. the Unted States
19 Links Strict Scrutiny Korematsu vs. the United States Korematsu vs. United States video
20 Civil Rights and Equal Protection Civil rights movement—the struggle by minorities and women to gain in practice the rights guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution
21 2 types of segregation A. De Jure Segregation B. De Facto Segregation Segregation by lawEx: Jim Crow LawsA. De Jure Segregationsegregation in fact. No law—but it’s still thereEx: Integrated public school in the 1970sB. De Facto Segregation
22 Court cases B. Brown vs. Board of Education A. Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896Rail carsSeparate but equal was found to be OK by the Supreme CourtB. Brown vs. Board of Education1954SchoolsSeparate but equal was found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
23 Court case linksPlessy vs. FergusonBrown vs. Board of Education
25 It was a different time period and people’s attitudes on race changed There were 9 new justices on the Supreme CourtThis case proves that the Constitution is a living document—it changes and grows with the times!!!!!
26 Section 4: Civil Rights Laws ***Civil rights movement did not end with victories in court. Marches, speeches, protests and close work with lawmakers have helped keep civil rights movement going
27 Civil Rights Laws sought to give all races the right to vote A. Civil Rights Act of 1866sought to give all races the right to voteCivil Rights Act of 1875outlawed racial discrimination in public placesThese laws were not enforced, especially in the South.
28 Nonviolent Protests 1955 Rosa Parks Montgomery, Alabama bus boycotts 1960 sit-insGreensboro, NC Woolworth storeThey refused to serve African-Americans at the storeLasted for monthsCongress of Racial Equality, 1961Freedom RidesBus trips from the North to the South to protest segregationSometimes, they were attacked by mobsMarch on WashingtonAugust, 1963Martin Luther King “I have a dream” speech
29 Changes Take Hold 1964 Civil Rights Act Voting Rights Act of 1965 Forbade segregation in public placesSchools started to integrateCalled for an end to discrimination in the work placeHiring, firing, promotionsVoting Rights Act of 1965Helped African-Americans equal opportunity of votingNo more literacy tests or poll taxesCivil Rights Acts of 1968 and 1991Prohibited discrimination based on race, national origin, and religion in advertising, financing, sale, and rental of housingStrengthened protections against discrimination in the workplace
30 Extending Civil Rights Hispanic-AmericansEqual rights for this groupAlso, more are represented in elected officeAmerican IndiansAsian AmericansPeople with DisabilitiesWomenEqual Pay Act