Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Role of the People. Chapter 10 Civil Rights The government of the United States protects the freedoms of its people and provides opportunities."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Civil Rights The government of the United States protects the freedoms of its people and provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
Content Statement Historically, the United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation.
Section 1: Citizenship and Immigration ***Citizens only can vote, hold elected office, and serve on juries. The Constitution and Congress have established the ways people may become U.S. citizens and the ways their citizenship may be lost.
Becoming a United States Citizen Being born to US citizens Being born in the US or in a US territory Jus sanguinis—if 1 parent is a US citizen and you are born in a foreign country A. By Birth
Becoming a United States Citizen Be a lawful resident of the US for 5 continuous years 18 years old Completes a citizenship application Is able to speak, read, and write English Demonstrates good moral character, belief in the principles of the Constitution, and knowledge of US history and government Supports the order and happiness of the United States Takes an oath of allegiance to the United States at a swearing-in ceremony B. Through naturalization— legal way immigrants become US citizens
Denaturalization—Losing Citizenship Is this possible? If so, what would a person have to do to be denaturalized?
Denaturalization Person became a US citizen by fraud Expatriation— when a person voluntarily gives up their citizenship Lied about background or provides other false info during the naturalization process A person is naturalized as a citizen or pledging allegiance to another country
Section 2: Diversity and Equal Protection Concern over the number of newcomers coming into the US has led to efforts to restrict immigration. The US has both benefited and suffered from immigration over the years.
Immigration Policies—they have changed over the years A. Unrestricted immigration Before late 1800’s—anybody could come to the US – Land – Jobs – Freedom Competition for land and jobs led to tension around 1900.
B. Immigration Restrictions Hostility toward immigrants led Congress over time to restrict immigration 1882—Congress passed a tax on those who entered the country 1882—Congress passed law that denied entry for convicted criminals 1882—Congress passed law that banned all Chinese (California—Chinese immigrants took less money to do jobs—this took jobs away from the natives) 1900—restricted Japanese immigration 1921 and 1924—set limits for immigrants on each country – Amounts favored western European countries
C. Immigration Policy Today – 1950’s—100 per Asian country allowed – 1965: Immigration and Nationality Act » 290,000/year » 120,000/Western Europe » 170,000/other countries – 1990: Immigration Act—675,000 – Today: many more from Asian and Latin American countries allowed in Current Immigration Policy in the United States Current Immigration Policy in the United States
Pro/Con of Illegal Immigration D. Illegal immigration Millions of illegals in US today Illegal aliens—do not have immigration papers – Deported if caught Amnesty—general pardon that gov gives to people who have broken a law – Gov has allowed illegal immigrants amnesty—if they can prove they have been here for a certain length, they can be given citizenship 1996: Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996—increased border patrol and provided for stronger penalties for creating and using false ID papers
A Nation of Diversity – Benefits Mix of people, culture, and traditions Foods, music, literature, and celebrations Creativity Chinatown, Polish Village, Little Italy – Challenges Prejudice in hiring, firing, promotions Discrimination
Section 3: Struggle for Civil Rights ***Civil rights: powers or privileges that governments grant to individuals to guarantee their equal treatment under the law
Equal Protection of the Law state gov may not “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” THIS IS THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE!!!!!!! A. 14 th Amendment at times, gov. can distinct between people Ex: charge people to come into a park. Non-park users do not pay B. Reasonable distinction
When is discrimination considered reasonable? 2 guidelines A. Rational basis test If gov has a rational reason Ex: drinking age B. Strict Scrutiny Test Involve cases where gov makes distinctions between people based on race or national origin This usually does not happen Example: Korematsu vs. the Unted States
Links Strict Scrutiny Korematsu vs. the United States Korematsu vs. United States video
Civil Rights and Equal Protection Civil rights movement—the struggle by minorities and women to gain in practice the rights guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution
2 types of segregation Segregation by law Ex: Jim Crow Laws A. De Jure Segregation segregation in fact. No law—but it’s still there Ex: Integrated public school in the 1970s B. De Facto Segregation
Court cases A. Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896Rail cars Separate but equal was found to be OK by the Supreme Court B. Brown vs. Board of Education 1954Schools Separate but equal was found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Court case links Plessy vs. Ferguson Brown vs. Board of Education
It was a different time period and people’s attitudes on race changed There were 9 new justices on the Supreme Court This case proves that the Constitution is a living document—it changes and grows with the times!!!!!
Section 4: Civil Rights Laws ***Civil rights movement did not end with victories in court. Marches, speeches, protests and close work with lawmakers have helped keep civil rights movement going
Civil Rights Laws A. Civil Rights Act of 1866 sought to give all races the right to vote Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed racial discrimination in public places These laws were not enforced, especially in the South.
Nonviolent Protests 1955 Rosa Parks – Montgomery, Alabama bus boycotts 1960 sit-ins – Greensboro, NC Woolworth store – They refused to serve African-Americans at the store – Lasted for months Congress of Racial Equality, 1961 – Freedom Rides » Bus trips from the North to the South to protest segregation » Sometimes, they were attacked by mobs March on Washington – August, 1963 – Martin Luther King “I have a dream” speech
Changes Take Hold 1964 Civil Rights Act – Forbade segregation in public places » Schools started to integrate – Called for an end to discrimination in the work place » Hiring, firing, promotions Voting Rights Act of 1965 – Helped African-Americans equal opportunity of voting – No more literacy tests or poll taxes Civil Rights Acts of 1968 and 1991 – Prohibited discrimination based on race, national origin, and religion in advertising, financing, sale, and rental of housing – Strengthened protections against discrimination in the workplace
Extending Civil Rights – Hispanic-Americans Equal rights for this group Also, more are represented in elected office – American Indians – Asian Americans – People with Disabilities – Women Equal Pay Act