Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH COLONIZATION CIVILIZATION COMES TO THE NEW WORLD."— Presentation transcript:
ENGLISH COLONIZATION CIVILIZATION COMES TO THE NEW WORLD
First Attempts Sir Walter Raleigh: – Rich Englishman. – Used his own money to start colony in 1586. – Colonists unprepared.
– Should be farming – Looking for gold – Rescued by Sir Francis Drake
The Lost Colony Sir Walter Raleigh decides to try again in 1587. Hires John White to supervise the colony. White gets them started and returns to England.
War between England and Spain keeps White from returning. Doesn’t return until 1590. Everyone’s gone.
The word CROATOAN was carved on a door post. The only clue.
Raleigh stopped using his own money. Need to develop a new way to colonize.
English colonization to the new world happens for 2 basic reasons: WHY COLONIZE?
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS In England in the 1600’s the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. Lots of TENANT FARMING.
Rich landowners in England suddenly realize they can make more money by kicking the people off their land and instead raise sheep.
They kick the people off their land. Lots of poor people now are homeless. Gotta do something with them.
JOINT STOCK COMPANIES People still want to colonize in the New World. Don’t want to lose all their money. Form Joint Stock Company. Look for investors.
JAMESTOWN Lots of rich people investing. Lots of rich people making lots of money. Lots of poor people need a place to go. It’s a perfect fit.
First Joint Stock Company formed to colonize in the New World. THE VIRGINIA COMPANY OF LONDON.
1607 – Settlement established on the James River by 105 men and boys. Name the colony JAMESTOWN.
After 7 months only 32 people survive. As they are getting ready to leave John Smith arrives.
He forces everyone to work together for the good of the colony. He has one simple rule: “If You Don’t Work You Don’t Eat”
More colonists arrive. Colony starts to become successful. Smith meets Pocahontas Smith gets injured in gun powder explosion
MAKING JAMESTOWN PROFITABLE After Smith leaves things again start to fall apart. Known as the “STARVING TIME”. By 1610 only 60 of the 500 settlers survived.
Along comes John Rolfe. He finds a way to make Jamestown profitable. Discovers a way to dry and ship TOBACCO.
Now people can get extremely wealthy by settling and planting tobacco in the New World. The population of Jamestown soars. More settlements develop.
Several things that happened helped Virginia to become successful: – 1.) Colonists are able to own land. – 2.) Indentured Servants allowed to come. – 3.) Women arrive - families can start. – 4.) Colonists can elect their own Legislature. SELF- GOVERNMENT (THIS WAS BIG).
RELIGIOUS CONFLICT King Henry VIII wants to divorce his wife. Pope Clement VII refuses to grant him an annulment.
Henry kicks the Catholic Church out of England. He names himself ruler of a new church called the AGLICAN CHURCH a.k.a. the CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
The new religion is just like the Catholic Church except it allows DIVORCE. All English citizens now HAVE to join his church. Not everyone was happy about this new church.
Some people still wanted to be Catholic. Others didn’t want to be Catholic or Anglican. These people wanted a more PURE faith. They are called PURITANS.
PILGRIMS A Pilgrim is anyone who makes a religious journey. First stop – The Netherlands. After a while the people see their children adapting to Dutch culture. They don’t like this. Time to move on.
Back to England. Get permission from King James I to settle on land north of Jamestown.
On route they get blown off course by about 461 miles. They end up in, what is today, Massachusetts.
Big Problems for the Pilgrims. – Too far north – Unprepared for winter; no food, no warm blankets, no winter clothing, no crops, no charter, no government.
Write the MAYFLOWER COMPACT. All promise to work for the good of the colony.
Pilgrims arrived too late to plant crops. Only food will be what they hunt and fish. They meet two Indians who help them; Squanto and Samoset.
They teach the Pilgrims how to plant crops, what plants are edible, etc. Saved their lives To thank the Indians we had the first Thanksgiving.
PURITANS Back in England those who stayed to change the church from within are tired of being discriminated against.
They form a Joint Stock Company called the MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY. They get permission to settle on land north of Plymouth. They call their colony Massachusetts.
In 10 years 20,000 people came to Massachusetts. Citizens can elect a General Court. Puritans don’t like celebrating, dancing, gambling, sports, basically anything FUN. Non-believers show up. This is going to cause problems.
ROGER WILLIAMS Arrived in 1631. Felt church leaders not following the teachings of the Bible. Felt Indians should be paid for their land. 1635 – Banned from the colony. Gets a charter to start colony of Providence, south of Massachusetts.
ANNE HUTCHINSON Arrived in Massachusetts in 1634. Believes people can talk directly to God without interference of the Church Put on trial for Heresy, found guilty and banned from the colony. Goes to Providence. Later tries to start her own colony and is killed by Indians.
REVEREND THOMAS HOOKER Disagreed with Church leaders Getting crowded, needs to look for good farm land Voluntarily left with his followers. Founded CONNECTICUT. Wrote first written Constitution: THE FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT
NEW HAMPSHIRE As the colony grew people moved north to land bordering New France. The settlers received a charter from the King in 1679. The area north and east of that stayed part of Massachusetts until 1820
THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire are known as the New England colonies.
THE MIDDLE COLONIES The area in between The New England Colonies and Virginia belonged to the Dutch. Their leader, Peter Stuyvesant, was afraid the British were going to try and take over.
1664 – King Charles II orders the British navy to capture New Netherlands. It is captured without a fight.
King Charles gives the land to his brother James, the Duke of York. James renames the area New York and keeps it for himself.
NEW JERSEY James gives the land between the Hudson & Delaware Rivers to his two friends, Lord George Carteret and Sir John Berkeley.
PENNSYLVANIA Land west of New Jersey was given to William Penn Jr., who was member of church known as the “SOCIETY OF FRIENDS”. He calls Pennsylvania his “Holy Experiment”.
DELAWARE Pennsylvania has no access to the ocean. Penn asks the Duke of York for land along the Delaware Bay to gain access to the sea. This later becomes the colony of Delaware.
These four colonies, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania & Delaware become known as the Middle Colonies.
THE SOUTHERN COLONIES The King’s good friend was George Calvert. He was a Roman Catholic. To protect him the king gave him land in North America.
Calvert (aka Lord Baltimore) names the colony for the King’s wife, Henrietta Marie. The colony is a haven for Catholics and Protestants. He calls it Maryland.
CAROLINA The land Carolina was given to 8 Noblemen. Later settlers from Virginia caused the colony to be split. North Carolina was for small farmers and South Carolina was for larger plantations.
GEORGIA Poor people in England are being sent to debtors prisons. James Oglethorpe has friend in one and wants to help. After his friend dies he asks the King if he can start a colony in the New World as a second chance for these poor people.
These five colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia are known as the Southern Colonies.