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ASHLEY M BOMMARITO CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY A Brief Look into the Biochemistry of Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Nervosa.

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Presentation on theme: "ASHLEY M BOMMARITO CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY A Brief Look into the Biochemistry of Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Nervosa."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASHLEY M BOMMARITO CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY A Brief Look into the Biochemistry of Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Nervosa

2 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

3 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

4 Metabolism Set of chemical reactions that occur in organisms to maintain life Two categories  Catabolism – “Destructive metabolism”  Anabolism – “Constructive metabolism” Organized into metabolic pathways  Enzymes couple energy-requiring reactions with energy- releasing reactions Only focusing on humans and similar mammals

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6 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

7 General Catabolism 3 main stages  Food broken down to smaller components; occurs outside cells  Digestive enzymes: proteases, glycoside hydrolases, lipases  Smaller molecules taken into cells; broken down more  Acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), releases some energy  Acetyl group oxidized to H 2 O and CO 2  Via citric acid cycle and electron transport chain  Coenzyme NAD +  NADH; releases much more energy

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11 TCA Cycle Overview TCA--Krebs-Cycle TCA--Krebs-Cycle

12 Metabolism Catabolism and Anabolism always coexist One process may dominate over the other  Awake: catabolism  Sleep: anabolism With regular rest and healthy diet – balanced

13 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

14 Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Nervosa Fasting  Voluntarily abstaining from all or most food Starvation  Extended fasting  Involuntary Anorexia  Poor appetite, due to many causes Anorexia Nervosa  Eating disorder – low body weight, distorted body image  Some food is still eaten, often only certain “categories”

15 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

16 General Effects Inadequate carbohydrate consumption  Body shifts to catabolic state  Body’s materials broken down – provides glucose to maintain life  Only materials required for survival are generated Catabolism > anabolism

17 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

18 Specific Effects – Amino Acids Alanine level decline Alanine to Pyruvate ratio downshift  Increase in oxidation of Alanine to obtain Pyruvate

19 Pyruvate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Alanine OxygenCarbonHydrogen Nitrogen Specific Effects – Amino Acids

20 Glutamate level decline Glutamate to α- ketoglutarate ratio downshift  Oxidation of Glutamate increase Specific Effects – Amino Acids

21 Glutamate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Nitrogen α-ketoglutarate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Specific Effects – Amino Acids

22 Specific Effects : Pyruvate Influx of carbons from acetyl CoA versus influx of carbons from pyruvate  14H: double  66H: triple PEP carboxykinase vs. TCA cycle flux  Seven-fold higher, 18H fast Pyruvate recycling vs TCA cycle flux  Five-fold higher, 18H fast

23 Specific Effects – Pyruvate Pyruvate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Acetyl CoA OxygenCarbonHydrogen SulfurCoA

24 Pyruvate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Oxaloacetate OxygenCarbonHydrogen PEP Glucose OxygenCarbonHydrogen Phosphoenolpyruvate OxygenCarbonHydrogen Phosphorous

25 Outline Metabolism  Catabolism Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia Effects  General  Specifics Summary

26 Metabolism – usually well balanced cycles  Catabolism – break down, provides energy Fasting, Starvation & Anorexia – Different forms of malnutrition Effects - Body must adapt, still requires glucose for some cells while other cells can use different energy forms  General – Body shifts to catabolic state  Specifics – Amino Acids (ex, alanine & glutamate) from muscles used to propel TCA cycle & fund glucose requirements


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