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The War to End War 1917-1918. Wilson and Neutrality January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted.

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Presentation on theme: "The War to End War 1917-1918. Wilson and Neutrality January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted."— Presentation transcript:

1 The War to End War

2 Wilson and Neutrality January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare This proclamation voided the earlier agreement between Wilson and Germany This proclamation voided the earlier agreement between Wilson and Germany Germany hoped that the US would remain neutral and stop supplying Britain before entering war Germany hoped that the US would remain neutral and stop supplying Britain before entering war Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany

3 War by Act of Germany Wilson asked congress for authority to arm US merchant ships Wilson asked congress for authority to arm US merchant ships Senators filibuster Senators filibuster Zimmerman Telegram: Germany asks Mexico to invade US, promising AZ, NM and TX Zimmerman Telegram: Germany asks Mexico to invade US, promising AZ, NM and TX German submarines sank 4 US merchant ships in early March 1917 German submarines sank 4 US merchant ships in early March 1917 Revolution in Russia Revolution in Russia April 1917, Declaration of war April 1917, Declaration of war

4 Wilson Idealism Enthroned Many still not convinced that war was necessary Many still not convinced that war was necessary Decision not unanimous in Congress Decision not unanimous in Congress “America could be isolationists or crusaders, but nothing in between” “America could be isolationists or crusaders, but nothing in between” Twin goals of war: Twin goals of war: –“War to End War” –“To make the world safe for democracy”

5 Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson became known as the moral leader of allied cause Wilson became known as the moral leader of allied cause 14 points given in January 1918: hoped to keep Russia in war (didn’t work) 14 points given in January 1918: hoped to keep Russia in war (didn’t work) –1. Proposal to abolish secret treaties –2. Freedom of the seas –3. Removal of economic barriers among nations –4. Reduction of armament burdens –5. Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the colonizers and native people –6. League of Nations- collective security

6 Committee of Public Information Headed by George Creel, journalist Headed by George Creel, journalist 75,000 propaganda speakers 75,000 propaganda speakers Posters Posters Leaflets and pamphlets Leaflets and pamphlets Movies Movies Relied on aroused passion and voluntary compliance Relied on aroused passion and voluntary compliance

7 Loyalty Everything blamed on Germans Everything blamed on Germans –Sauerkraut= liberty cabbage –Hamburger= liberty steak Espionage Act (1917) Espionage Act (1917) Sedition Act (1918) Sedition Act (1918) Targeted anti-war activists Targeted anti-war activists Eugene Debs arrested in 1918 Eugene Debs arrested in 1918 Schenck v. US- Supreme Court ruled that 1 st amendment could be revoked when it posed a danger to the nation Schenck v. US- Supreme Court ruled that 1 st amendment could be revoked when it posed a danger to the nation

8 Wartime Workforce “work or fight”: unemployed males would be drafted “work or fight”: unemployed males would be drafted National Labor Board: chaired by William Taft, pushed for high wages and 8 hour work days, but not the right to unionize National Labor Board: chaired by William Taft, pushed for high wages and 8 hour work days, but not the right to unionize American Federation of Labor supported war efforts, did not threaten to strike American Federation of Labor supported war efforts, did not threaten to strike Industrial Workers of the World did protest during war, and were beaten and arrested Industrial Workers of the World did protest during war, and were beaten and arrested

9 Wartime workforce Coal mining, manufacturing and transportation saw wage increases after war Coal mining, manufacturing and transportation saw wage increases after war Steel Strike of 1919: Steel Strike of 1919: –Industry leaders refused to recognize union – brought in African American workers –bloody protests left many dead –Strike collapsed, setback to unions

10 African Americans in the Workplace Many southern AA moved north during war looking for jobs Many southern AA moved north during war looking for jobs Sometimes met with racist violence Sometimes met with racist violence 1917 riot in in Missouri left 49 dead 1917 riot in in Missouri left 49 dead Violence in Chicago (1919) Violence in Chicago (1919)

11 Women during War Some suffragist were pacifists, demonstrated against war Some suffragist were pacifists, demonstrated against war Many women supported war Many women supported war Wilson supported suffrage Wilson supported suffrage 19 th amendment (1920) 19 th amendment (1920) Women went to work in many war industries Women went to work in many war industries Many women gave up jobs once men came home Many women gave up jobs once men came home

12 Wartime Economy Herbert Hoover selected to lead Food Administration (had led relief effort of Belgium) Herbert Hoover selected to lead Food Administration (had led relief effort of Belgium) Hoover used propaganda to encourage voluntarily saving food for exports Hoover used propaganda to encourage voluntarily saving food for exports Victory gardens, sheep on White House lawn Victory gardens, sheep on White House lawn War helped prohibition: 18 th amendment (1919) War helped prohibition: 18 th amendment (1919) Farm production increased as did food exports Farm production increased as did food exports

13 Wartime Economy Americans encouraged to conserve fuel Americans encouraged to conserve fuel Treasury Dept. raised $21 billion in bonds Treasury Dept. raised $21 billion in bonds Many were pressured into bonds to prove their patriotism Many were pressured into bonds to prove their patriotism Federal gov. took control of railroads Federal gov. took control of railroads Seized enemy merchant ships Seized enemy merchant ships

14 Army Conscription Conscription No exemptions, except in crucial industries No exemptions, except in crucial industries Army grew from 100,000 pre-war soldiers to over 4 million Army grew from 100,000 pre-war soldiers to over 4 million Women allowed in military for 1 st time Women allowed in military for 1 st time AA served in segregated battalions AA served in segregated battalions

15 Fighting in Europe Russia withdraws troops in 1918 Russia withdraws troops in 1918 Germany now could concentrate on fighting in western Europe Germany now could concentrate on fighting in western Europe US troops begin to arrive in France a year after war declared US troops begin to arrive in France a year after war declared US soldiers also fight in Belgium, Italy, Russia US soldiers also fight in Belgium, Italy, Russia US invaded Russia to protect munitions US invaded Russia to protect munitions Expedition into Siberia to rescue Czech troops Expedition into Siberia to rescue Czech troops

16 Fighting Germany pressing west toward Paris Germany pressing west toward Paris Americans key in second Battle of the Marne (July 1918) Americans key in second Battle of the Marne (July 1918) General John Pershing led 1.2 million US soldiers in the Meuse-Argonne campaign featured heavy fighting with high casualties near the Argonne Forest General John Pershing led 1.2 million US soldiers in the Meuse-Argonne campaign featured heavy fighting with high casualties near the Argonne Forest Alvin York (from an antiwar family) killed 20 Germans and captured 132 single-handedly Alvin York (from an antiwar family) killed 20 Germans and captured 132 single-handedly

17 Final Days German allies were deserting them German allies were deserting them British blockade creating food shortages British blockade creating food shortages Propaganda leaflets were spreading across the German front Propaganda leaflets were spreading across the German front

18 Peace Germany turned to Wilson and his 14 points Germany turned to Wilson and his 14 points Wilson required that the Kaiser be removed before peace could be obtained Wilson required that the Kaiser be removed before peace could be obtained Kaiser fled to the Netherlands Kaiser fled to the Netherlands 11,11,11 11,11,11 Main US contributions had been food, supplies, money and oil Main US contributions had been food, supplies, money and oil

19 Wilson a Hero Abroad Wilson a hero throughout Europe for ending war Wilson a hero throughout Europe for ending war Wilson sat at the head of the mightiest nation on earth Wilson sat at the head of the mightiest nation on earth

20 Peace at Home Republicans gain a majority in Congress in 1918 Republicans gain a majority in Congress in 1918 No president had ever traveled to Europe, but Wilson went after war No president had ever traveled to Europe, but Wilson went after war Refused to bring any Republican Senators Refused to bring any Republican Senators

21 Idealism vs. Imperialism Crowds welcomed Wilson, but leaders worried Crowds welcomed Wilson, but leaders worried Paris Conference featured “Big 4” (US, GB, Italy and France) Paris Conference featured “Big 4” (US, GB, Italy and France) Europe worried about communist spillover from Russia Europe worried about communist spillover from Russia Territories of conquered would be overseen by League of Nations Territories of conquered would be overseen by League of Nations

22 The Treaty of Versailles Republican opposition at home empowered European leaders against Wilson Republican opposition at home empowered European leaders against Wilson France demanded part of Germany (administered by League for 15 years) France demanded part of Germany (administered by League for 15 years) GB and US agree to aid France in future GB and US agree to aid France in future Italy demanded part of Yugoslavia Italy demanded part of Yugoslavia Japan demanded German islands in Pacific Japan demanded German islands in Pacific Japan also demanded part of China, which was to be returned at a later date Japan also demanded part of China, which was to be returned at a later date

23 The Treaty Leads to Trouble Germany forced to accept treaty void of 14 points Germany forced to accept treaty void of 14 points Wilson had to compromise Wilson had to compromise Isolationists in US despised Treaty Isolationists in US despised Treaty Some felt that it wasn’t harsh enough on Germany Some felt that it wasn’t harsh enough on Germany Others felt it went to far Others felt it went to far

24 American Deadlock Republicans sought to change treaty Republicans sought to change treaty Wilson undertook a nationwide tour to gain support for the treaty Wilson undertook a nationwide tour to gain support for the treaty Wilson had a long history of illness, and in Sep he collapsed in Colorado Wilson had a long history of illness, and in Sep he collapsed in Colorado A stroke partially paralyzed Wilson back in DC A stroke partially paralyzed Wilson back in DC Wilson did not meet with his cabinet for 7 months Wilson did not meet with his cabinet for 7 months

25 American Deadlock Congress upset over the requirement that US would come to the aid of other attacked nations Congress upset over the requirement that US would come to the aid of other attacked nations Amended “republican" treaty rejected, twice Amended “republican" treaty rejected, twice Treaty never approved by Congress Treaty never approved by Congress

26 Election of 1920 Republicans nominate Warren Harding Republicans nominate Warren Harding Harding makes mixed statements about Treaty Harding makes mixed statements about Treaty Newly enfranchised women help Harding carry the victory Newly enfranchised women help Harding carry the victory Without US support the treaty was doomed to fail in Europe Without US support the treaty was doomed to fail in Europe US goes back to isolationism US goes back to isolationism


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