Presentation on theme: "TYPES AND ISSUES BILINGUAL EDUCATION. What is it? A program designed to provide instruction in both a student's native language and in a second language."— Presentation transcript:
TYPES AND ISSUES BILINGUAL EDUCATION
What is it? A program designed to provide instruction in both a student's native language and in a second language. Bilingual education is based upon language acquisition research and the understanding that strong development of ones native tongue is the best foundation for development of a second language. Bilingual programs emphasize "comprehensible input" in instruction by ensuring that students receive content area instruction in a language they can understand.
Submersion Student is placed in an English-speaking classroom with native English speakers, regardless of the student’s level of proficiency in English. The student is expected to learn the content of the material taught in English, even though he or she may still be learning the language. This is not technically ‘bilingual education’, as the material is presented in only one language (English).
Two-way bilingual education Fluent or native speakers of both English and another language are placed in the same classroom and instructed in both languages alternately. The goal is for both groups of speakers to become fluent in the other language. This form of education is most effective if implemented for a period of seven years or more.
English as a Second Language (ESL): Non-English speaking students are placed in English- speaking classrooms for part of the day. The other part of the day the students are in a classroom with a trained ESL instructor, where they receive individual and concentrated instruction on the learning of English. The students are held responsible for the content taught in the English-speaking courses they take.
Immersion Students are instructed in a foreign language for the entire school day. Immersion programs differ from submersion programs in that immersion is usually designed to teach “majority language speakers” (standard English speakers, in this case) a foreign language. Most of the students who are able to participate in such a program are of higher socioeconomic status, and always participate voluntarily. Such programs tend to be very effective in fostering bilingualism in its students.
Three language system Students are initially educated in an official state language. A second language, an official language of the Union, is introduced after approximately two years. After another several years, a third language, "any Modern Indian Language" not already taught, is introduced academically. At the conclusion of the child's education, he or she will be proficient (if not fluent) in at least three languages. However, the system does not "provide a place for such mother tongues that are different from the Regional Languages", though more languages are represented in this program.
Jim Cummins on Bilingual Education One wheel can take you places…. So can one big wheel and one small wheel… However, when your wheels are nicely balanced and fully inflated you’ll go further… Provided, of course, that the people who Made the wheels knew what They were doing….
Fear of bilingual education. Cummins. A.Overt Aim Teach English to minority children in order to create a harmonious society with equal opportunity for all. Covert Aim Anglicize minority children because linguistic and cultural diversity are seen as a threat to social cohesion D. Outcomes Even more intense efforts by the school to eradicate the deficiencies inherent in minority children. Outcomes The failure of these efforts only serves to reinforce the myth of minority group deficiencies. B. Method Prohibit use of L1 in schools and make children reject their own culture and language in order to identify with majority English group. Justification 1.L1 should be eradicated because it will interfere with the learning of English. 2.Identification with L1 culture will reduce child's ability to identify with English- speaking culture. C. Results 1.Shame in L1 and culture. 2.Replacement of L1 by L2. 3.School failure among many children. “Scientific” explanation. 1.Bilingualism =confusion in thinking and emotional insecurity, hence school failure. 2.Minority group children are “culturally deprived” (they are not Anglos). 3.Some minority language groups are genetically inferior (see 1920s-30s U.S./Europe) This table reflects assumptions of north American school systems in the Early However similar assumptions have been made about minority language children in the school system s of many other countries.
The Threshold Hypothesis Cognitive/academic effects of different types of bilingualism Types of Bilingualism High levels in both languages B. Partial Bilingualism Native-like level in one Lang. C. Limited Bilingualism: Low level in both languages Cognitive/Acade mic Effects Positive effects Neither positive Nor negative Effects Negative effects Higher threshold Of bilingual competence Lower threshold level Of bilingual Competence Adapted from Toukama & Skuttnab-Kangas 1977.