CONTENTS Genghis Khan Mongol Culture Legacy Sources
GENGHIS KHAN (CA. 1165 - Temujin born clutching a clot of blood. At nine years old Temujin and his father Yesugei ride to pick a bride from Hoelun’s (his mother) clan. However, he met Börte along the way – “Love at first sight”. Yesugei dies upon the return home. Poisoned by an enemy Tartar tribe. Yesugei’s clan abandons Temujin and his family.
GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE Mongolia is known to the world as country of "Blue Sky". Along with Southern Siberia this part of Asia has a continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers. In Mongolia there are 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.Mongolia
YURT Wood frame Felt cover (sheep’s wool) Rounded with fire pit in middle Door always faced south Could be set up or taken down to fit their nomadic lifestyle.
FOOD White Foods: dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and “airag” (fermented mare’s milk) during the summer. Brown Foods: meat usually boiled and served with wild garlic & onions. They would butcher the animal by cutting open the aorta to cause deadly internal bleeding. They would use the blood for sausages. Firestones: Lacking firewood, Mongols burned animal dung to heat stones for cooking. Salty Tea: Water, milk, tea (green or black) and salt. Most Important Animals: Horses, Camels, Sheep/goats.
“THE DEVIL’S HORSEMEN” Learned to ride as soon as you could walk. Learning to pivot, dodge, stop, with subtle cues. Learned to use weapons while riding. Horse’s needs nearly as important as a human’s. Provided milk, meat, transportation, protection. Europeans called them “The Devil’s Horsemen”
WEAPONRY & ARMOR & TACTICS Archery: shoot more than a dozen arrows per minute at a full gallop. Used composite bows (horn & bamboo). Arrows modified for several uses: piercing armor, carry messages, whistling noises, lit on fire. Warriors who proved loyal and successful in battle were promoted to units of men. Mongols on the front lines carried lances, wore chest armor of hide and iron pieces. Lighter cavalry wore raw silk shirts (pushed silk into the wound and the arrow could pop out). Infantry men were usually prisoners or civilians. Suicide Corp: group galloped toward enemy; turn and fake retreat; when enemy’s horses were tired the entire Mongol force fell upon them. Field commanders used flags, torches and whistling arrows. Their message system was so efficient that armies hundreds of miles apart were able to coordinate their movements perfectly. Obedience and loyalty were strictly followed. Other weaponry included battle axes and scimitars.
RELIGION Shamanism & Animism: everything has a spirit. Some believed the highest god was the eternal blue heaven. Tengri was the god of the mountain that Genghis Khan believed saved his life. A shaman was like a priest that would communicate with the spirit world. Often Mongols adopted the religion of those they conquered (Islam, Buddhism, etc.)
GENGHIS KHAN’S ACCOMPLISHMENTS Unified the Mongol clans. Loyal body guard Adopted foreign children Permitted freedom (esp. religious) Used talents of conquered people (kept them alive) Other Mongols that were conquered could choose to serve in his army Rewarded his soldiers generously Developed the Great Yasa (law system). Inspired a lasting empire.
Genghis General 1000 General 1000 General 1000 General 1000 Sons
Roman Empire = 2.51 million sq. miles 65,000,000 people Greek Empire = 3.2 million sq. miles 35,000,000 people Mongol Empire = 9.3 million sq. miles 100,000,000 people 2X the size of the Roman Empire!
GREAT YASA One must magnify and pay honor to the pure, and the innocent, and the righteous, and to the learned, to whatsoever people they may belong; and condemn the wicked and the men of iniquity. The first is this: That ye love another; second, do not commit adultery; do not steal; do not bear false witness; do not betray anyone. Respect the aged and poor. "Genghis Khan forbade the Mongols to eat anything in the presence of another without inviting him to also partake in the food; he forbade any man to eat more than his comrades. He forbade them to dip their hands into water and ordered them to use some vessel for the drawing of water. Death to anyone who intentionally lies, or practices sorcery, or spies upon the behavior of others, or intervenes between the two parties in a quarrel to help the one against the other. Death to anyone who urinates into water or ashes. Death to anyone who finds a runaway slave or captive and does not return him to the person to whom he belongs. He forbade them to wash their clothes until they were completely worn out. He ordered men not to hurt each other and to forget offences completely. He ordered men to spare countries and cities which submit voluntarily. If in battle, during an attack or a retreat, anyone drops his pack, or bow, or any luggage, the man behind him must alight and return the thing fallen to its owner; if he does not so alight and return the thing fallen, he is to be put to death.
Wise choice of Genghis…..tried to hold the empire together Conquered China – Xanadu – Yuan Dynasty Conquered Russia – Golden Horde Tall (for a Mongol)…Lame….ruthless beyond words…didn’t prepare for a future
ORIGINAL SOURCES FOR THE MONGOLS? Marco Polo (1254 – 1324)Marco Polo Friar John of Pian de Carpine (1245 – 1247)Friar John of Pian de Carpine William of Rubruck (Flemish Franciscan monk, ca. 1210 – ca. 1270)William of Rubruck The Secret History of the Mongols
SOURCES Wiencek, Henry, and Glenn D. Lowry. Storm across Asia. New York, NY: HBJ, 1980. Print. Demi, and Demi. Genghis Khan. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Children, 2009. Print. Bankston, John. Genghis Khan. Hockessin: Mitchell Lane, 2013. Print. Helget, Nicole Lea. Mongols. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 2013. Print.