Neurons – Transmit: Receive info from senses or neurons and communicate the info back to parts of body Axons - Send Dendrites - Receive Synapses - Connect Glial Cells - Support Circuits - Maps
Regulates other systems in the body Senses information from the body and environment Guides child’s movements Forms Associations Reads Emotions giving experiences Meaning Translates thoughts and feelings into words, images and behaviors Determines actions needed to achieve outcomes or goals ROLE IN THE BODY-BRAIN SYSTEMMENTAL ABILITIES
Prenatal development – production, migration, connection (or die) Infancy and early childhood – dendrite branching, (synaptogenesis), synaptic pruning, myelination, foundation of later abilities Middle Childhood - two hemispheres more distinct, more elaborate mapping, pruning, learning, myelination Adolescence - myelination, planning, simultaneity,
Plasticity – The brain’s ability to develop and change in response to experiences During early childhood – Brain is most receptive and responsive to experience Both positive and negative experiences modify the brain architecture Windows of Opportunity - At times the brain is more open to certain types of learning; Montessori called these “sensitive periods”
BLUE BLACK RED YELLOW VIOLET GREEN ORANGE BLUE BLACK RED YELLOW VIOLET GREEN ORANGE
Give children many opportunities to learn simultaneously Be optimistic that everyday experiences and classroom instruction can have an impact throughout childhood and adolescence Accommodate individual difference in neurological functioning Provide extra guidance to children who have had early exposure to drugs and alcohol. Encourage children and adolescents to think about he consequences of their actions – Play! Act them out! Help children who have been neglected or abused to form warm, trusting, and stable relationships.
Different types of play have different benefits Functional play Constructive play Symbolic play Games with rules Extending play If you pretend, children will begin to pretend too Begins as functional becomes more symbolic Unimaginative play = immature play Games with rules can be symbolic
What is the connection between mirror neurons and play? What do children pay attention to? Role of emotions… Development of feeling/thoughts
Rapid growth in pre-frontal cortex where self- regulation occurs Self-regulation predicts academic performance in 1 st grade more than cognitive performance A child from at risk family who has self-regulation does better than even middle class child who doesn’t possess these skills No self-regulation…you don’t know if you know something unless the teacher says you do
Marshmallow Experiment Marshmallow Experiment Self-regulation involves: Inhibitory and effortful self-control Working memory Cognitive flexibility
1. Being regulated by another person (to internalize standards). Teacher regulation is not the same as self- regulation and this is apparent when children misbehave out of the view of the teacher. 2. Regulated other people (shows the child is thinking about the rules/standards and applying them). This is often seen in tattling. 3. Self-regulating. This occurs when children voluntarily apply rules to self-not mere obedience.
+ What does this mean? Everything is learned through your body!