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From 1945 to the present. Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there.

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Presentation on theme: "From 1945 to the present. Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there."— Presentation transcript:

1 from 1945 to the present


3 Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there. Immigration is a result of: including, economic, political, family re-unification, natural disaster, poverty or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily. There are roughly 20 million people of Polish ancestry living outside Poland.

4 As a result of general administrative order and by means of fear 2 826 000 of Polish were deported to Germany and packed into a system of discrimination, sweated labour and lawlessness. There was no objection from German public opinion. Polish workers caught by German police.

5 Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for labour, most of them against their will. Many were teenaged boys and girls. They were forced to wear identifying purple P's sewn to their clothing, subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation. Forced labour in stone pits

6 The only 520 000 of Polish returned from Reich.

7 About 800 thousands of Polish citizens remained in Western Europe after World War II. Among them were soldiers and generals, labor camp prisoners or people who were involved in fight against Hitler on behalf of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) - and they could not come back to Poland after the war because of the danger of Soviet persecutions. Army National brass eagle Headband worn by soldiers of the National Army.

8 Also many politicians, scientists and artists who did not foresee their chance in the communistic of Soviet-type run Poland. After the World War II the center of Polish immigrant political life abroad was England with the Polish Government in Exile which ceased to exist with the fall of communism in 1989.

9 Travel abroad was restricted to Poles until 1980, still over a million people left Poland permanently in that time: about 600 thousands in years 1945- 1955 and the next 800 thousands in years 1956-1979.

10 More people left after 1956 not because the life became more difficult (this was the time when Stalin-type of regime ceased to exist and the thick wall became a bit thinner and more transparent) but rather because it was easier to receive the passport and to leave abroad. Some of this emigration was legal - for instance in the action of uniting families (akcja łączenia rodzin) between Poland and Germany.

11 In the years 1967-1968 the exodus of Polish Jews (about 20 thousands) took place. It was caused partly by internal tensions in Polish communist party, between so called patriots and nationalists and the internationalists, some of the communists of the second group were of Jewish origin. It was also magnified by students � riots of March 1968 and by the international situation in Israel.

12 In 1980’s immigrants came after the martial law in December 1981. Some won visa on the visa lottery. Some Immigrants were very skilled professionals. Quite numerous group of faculty in American universities consisted of well educated Polish immigrants. Some of Polish immigrants live in low- income housing mainly in Polish quarters in Chicago, New York or Detroit.

13 The next big wave of immigration took place in years 1980-1990 when about 100 thousands people was leaving Poland every year. This immigration was mainly economical (so called "emigracja dorobkowa"), although some Solidarity activists have to leave after martial law was enforced.

14 Majority of people who left were young and well educated people who did not foresee political or economical change. Majority of people left to Germany, Austria, or through the temporary camps in Italy to Canada, Australia or the USA.

15 Since 1 May 2004, the Republic of Poland has been a member of the European Union. In addition to the developments mentioned which indicate Poland is becoming a destination country for migration, increasing temporary work migration, so-called circular migration, has also been observed. In addition, since Poland joined the EU, its workers have increasingly migrated to other EU states, in particular the United Kingdom and Ireland.

16 In 2004, Poland joined the European Union, it was one of the so called A8 countries. Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Poland Slovakia Slovenia These countries had a standard of living which was 40% of the European average.

17 These encourage, or force, migrants to move from their original locality.

18 The Treaty of Rome allows any European Union citizen to travel, work and settle within another member state. Due to the difference in living standards there were fears of mass economic migration. It was agreed that member states could limit migration from the A8 countries till 2011. But, the UK agreed to accept migrants as long as they registered to work.



21 Around 50% of Polish migrants return home. Economic crisis has resulted in a drop in the value of the pound, it is less cost-effective. Current economic crisis has reduced job opportunities, whilst the Polish economy has continued to grow. Wages in Poland have increased, but living costs have remained stable. Major building projects require construction workers. Missing home



24 As for the country of origin of foreign employees, in 2009 the largest groups were constituted by citizens of Ukraine (9,504, 32%) China (4,536, that is 15%) Vietnam (2,577, that is 9%) Belarus (1,669, that is 6%) Turkey (1,422, that is 5%) and India (1,164, that is 4%).

25 © Karol Adam Karaś

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