Presentation on theme: "“International Organizations” Training Session 11 Feb 2015."— Presentation transcript:
“International Organizations” Training Session 11 Feb 2015
UN The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organisation established 24 October 1945, to promote international co-operation.
Security Council The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. – Takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, it can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorise the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. – Five permanent members with veto power and ten non- permanent members, elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term.
Veto Power Veto power is wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States), enabling them to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft. Is this a good thing?
Peacekeepers The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states.
ICC (International Criminal Court) The ICC is legally independent from the United Nations. Can trial people for things such as war crimes and crimes against humanity Problems: – Important international players, such as the USA and Israel, are not members – The ICC has been accused of bias and as being a tool of Western imperialism, only punishing leaders from small, weak states while ignoring crimes committed by richer and more powerful states.
What are they? Unmanned (combat) aerial vehicles Pilotless planes Getting more and more advanced – Can carry 2 hellfire missiles
When are they used? Benefits: Remote piloted Reduce the need for ground forces First Used: Bosnia 1995 for reconnaissance 2001 Nevada – first successful payload delivery Where are they used? Yemen Pakistan Somalia
Chain of Command Not covered by defence CIA command structure President signs off on every drone strike Changes from Bush to Obama administration
Pakistan 2004 Drone Strikes begin. killed 5–8 people including Nek Muhammad Wazir and two children, in a strike in South Waziristan. CIA covert action authority Current position of Pakistani Government is that they don’t consent to drone strikes (in reality do) http://drones.pitchinteractive.com/
Yemen and Somalia Yemen Civil War 2011 Revolution Al Qaeda haven in the Middle East Somalia Al Shabaab ‘The Youth’ – Ahmed Godane Surveillance against piracy
Debating about drones FOR More efficient Better targeted Reduce collateral damage Less risk to troops Can be used for surveillance AGAINST No more efficient Lack of oversight Indiscriminate Remoteness of killing Radicalisation