Presentation on theme: "The ARRIVE Model An Indigenous NYC- Based Model of HIV Prevention Education for HIV+ and at-risk Substance Users Howard Josepher, LCSW Founder, President/CEO."— Presentation transcript:
The ARRIVE Model An Indigenous NYC- Based Model of HIV Prevention Education for HIV+ and at-risk Substance Users Howard Josepher, LCSW Founder, President/CEO - Exponents
History ARRIVE was developed by Howard Josepher, LCSW at the request of NDRI with 3-year demonstration funding (1987 – 1990) from the National Institutes of Drug Abuse (NIDA) Original Name: AIDS Risk Reduction for Intravenous Drug Users and Ex-Offenders 1988 – Triple epidemics of HIV/AIDS, Injection Drug Use/Crack and Violence (Syndemics). Mandate: Engage recently released parolees known to have IDU histories.
Evidence-Based Practices Psycho-education (proven highly successful working with individuals with mental illness) – provides insight into motivational circumstances/situations that prompt individuals to ‘self- medicate’ Peer Support/Role Modeling – provides ongoing inspiration that participants can transform their lives through the adoption of new, healthier behaviors Creation of Community – breaks the destructive cycle of isolation and depression often brought on by sustained drug/alcohol use; (re)ignites an acknowledgement of the individual’s spiritual self Advocacy on Behalf of Participants – relays genuineness, concern for overall well-being, and continued success. Social Learning Approach - close contact (community, small team breakdowns), imitation of superiors (peer engagement), understanding of concepts (psycho- education), role model behavior.
Evidence-Based Theory Stages of Change Stages of Group Development Psycho-education
Description ARRIVE is an eight-week program; it is delivered through twenty-four 2.5-hour psycho- educational and health & wellness sessions (similar to a 3-credit college course). The program incorporates psycho-education and health & wellness information disseminated in large group settings with smaller discussions (called team-breakdowns) as well as support groups for at-risk and HIV+ participants and individual counseling. It’s primary purpose is to teach self-management skills to address chronic health conditions (addiction, HIV, HCV) and reduce the infection/transmission risks to themselves and their sexual and drug-sharing partners. Through personal investment in the process, participants enhance self-esteem. A large number of participants have criminal justice histories and have encountered long periods of homelessness. Active and recovering substance users are welcomed – HARM REDUCTION.
Core Elements Ongoing engagement of each participant at multiple levels: psycho-educational and health & wellness informational sessions support groups small team breakdowns individual counseling All facilitated by past graduates, recovering individuals, persons with compromised immune systems and formerly incarcerated. (PEERS) Participant Psycho- Educational Sessions Small Team Breakdowns Individual Counseling Support Groups Health & Wellness Information
Evidence of Effectiveness Successfully implemented for more than two decades More than 9,500 graduates all of whom attend voluntarily Current waiting list extends to October cycle. Exponents is the largest contract under the current portfolio of HRR awards. Funded through NYCDOHMH/HRR since Cited in SAMHSA’s TIP 44 (substance abuse treatment for adults in the criminal justice setting) as an evidence-based practice
Evaluation Data Two external evaluations have been conducted on the ARRIVE model: Wexler, H., Magura, S., Beardsley, M. Barreras, R., Drucker, E.
Evaluation Findings (1991) 394 parolees w/histories of IDU (81% male, 57% Black, 33% Latino/Hispanic; avg. age: 35) Sixty-one percent were engaged in the intervention (experimental group) Sixty-eight percent completion rate Substance use-related findings: Compared to individuals in the comparison group, participants were less likely to have friends who were IDUs, reported lower frequencies of cocaine sniffing and marijuana smoking, and had more involvement in substance abuse treatment programs.
Evaluation Findings (cont’d) Participants were: more likely to be tested for HIV less likely to have been arrested possessed higher levels of employment during the follow-up period.
Evaluation Findings (2009) 71% OF CURRENT OR FORMER DRUG USERS REPORTED AN INCREASED ABILITY TO DEAL WITH STIGMA 41% INCREASE IN SELF-EFFICACY RELATED TO EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO HIV STATUS 30 % INCREASE RELATED TO HIV DISCLOSURE SELF-EFFICACY 37% INCREASE IN HIV TREATMENT ADHERENCE
Recommendations for future HRR-Supported Programming Content : Evidence-Based Practices Context: Non-judgmental engagement (flexible continuum) Strength-based vs. Deficit-based Person-centered (provide recovery options) Holistic Wellness Approach (PCSI) Environment that is peer-informed and peer-led