Presentation on theme: "Investigating the effect of out of school activities on educational attainment Exploring theories of causality."— Presentation transcript:
Investigating the effect of out of school activities on educational attainment Exploring theories of causality
What links are there between out of school activities and educational attainment?
What do we mean by out of school activities “Learning activity outside normal school hours that children take part in voluntarily”. E.g. Music lessons Sports clubs After school clubs Scouts/Guides etc
Hypothesis Participation in Out of School Activities Processes Improved educational attainment We are suggesting that children who take part in out of school activities do better educationally, and want to explore the processes underlying this link
We will analyse data to find How children spend their time out of school - range and types Change and continuity during primary school Patterns of activity participation for children from different backgrounds (incl parent employment, SEG) Associations between different activities and educational attainment at 11
We will then Interview parents Interview out of school activity providers Interview children We’d like you your help to explore reasons for links
Theories of underlying processes From our review of the literature we have drawn out possible theories of causation We want to test which theory is most likely to underpin this link There are a wide range so we have grouped the theories by – Child-focussed – Social focussed – Activity focussed These are presented on the following slides We welcome your opinions on them
Selection effects More engaged families send children to out of school activities. Also more engaged in academic achievement Higher SEG parents can afford out of school activities. Higher SEG children achieve better at school
Child focussed (Marsh & Kleitman; Valentine et al; Cummings et al) Activities take place in school Pupil enjoys activities Increased engagement with school Pupil identifies with school more. Staff have better impression of pupils, reflected in school Identification/Commitment Model (Vygotsky; Bruner) Capabilities are nurtured in a less formal setting Transferred to formal learning Socio-cultural Model (Valentine, 2002) Attainment in non-educatiom setting Increased confidence Self belief model (Elliott) Activities encourage desire to demonstrate skills and ability Goal theory
Social focussed (Putnam) Activities increase social resources Social Capital theory (Bandura) Exposure to admired peers Allows observation and imitation of traits Social cognitive learning (Camsey; Ungar; Martin & Marsh; Garmezy) Exposure to risk and resilience Develops protective factors (confidence, control, commitment) Risk & Resilience theory (Eccles et al) Attachment to non-familial adults See instructors in a supportive role Adult Supporters
Activity focussed (Valentine et al; Buoye) Activities have educational content Increased learning Normalises learning with peers Success is experienced in non-academic domain Boosts self-belief and confidence Capability Approach (Fredricks & Eccles; Sylva et al) Increase in skills, learning and participation Breadth of participation Academic Model (Broh) Competitive element Increases desire to succeed Competition
Any others? Happy children who have fun are more receptive to learning and achieving? Children who succeed at school are more likely to take place in out of school activities? Parents who send their children to out of school activities are those who engage more with their children’s lives / place more emphasis on success?
Keep in touch We’ll be releasing our findings throughout the project Let us know your thoughts or get added to our mailing list Emily.firstname.lastname@example.org