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The Civil War Chapter 15 Cornell Notes.

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1 The Civil War Chapter 15 Cornell Notes

2 Section 1: Texas Secession
Many Issues Divide the Country The North and South Disagreed on: The Republican Party Opposes Slavery Northern Views: In 1861 Texas joined 11 other Southern states that withdrew from the United States to form the Confederates States of America 1. Tariffs 2. Distribution of public land 3. States’ rights- the federal government should not interfere with the states exercise of their constitutional powers 4 .Slavery Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere. Many were prejudiced against African Americans Many were against slavery- Joined new Republican Party. Believed that Southern Democrats were responsible for the economic depression

3 Section 1: Texas Secession
Southern Views: Southern States Vow to Secede Believed that the North was only trying to help themselves. Believed that victory of the Republican party would mean the end of Slavery and the Southern way of life During the 1860 presidential campaign, some Southern Leaders threatened that if the Republicans won, the South would secede from the Union. Secede- to withdraw Sovereignty- supreme power ***States came into the Union voluntarily and should be able to leave voluntarily! November Abraham Lincoln won the election- December 1860 & January South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana voted to secede.

4 Section 1: Texas Secession
The Convention Votes on Secession Sam Houston opposed secession. He believed that Texas could better protect its interest by staying with the Union He refused to call a special session of legislature. The people met anyways- the people who wanted to stay with the Union didn’t go the convention, because they thought it was ILLEGAL. When Sam Houston realized that they were meeting without his approval, he called the legislature hoping they would disapprove, but they approved. . Texas Secession Convention- adopted a decree called the Ordinance of Secession, which said that the US government had abused its power The Convention called on the people of Texas to Vote on secession- Texans approved 46,153 to 14, 747. – Texas became the 7th state to withdraw from the Union.

5 Section 1: Texas Secession
The Confederacy is Formed The states that withdrew met to form a new nation at a convention in Montgomery Alabama.- called the Montgomery Convention. Confederate States of America Wrote a Constitution - much like the U.S. EXECPT States had MORE power National government had LESS power Guaranteed the protection of slavery Selected officers President- Jefferson Davis of Mississippi Vice P.- Alexander H. Stephens Post Master general – John H. Reagan Texas held another convention to quickly approve the Confederate constitution and to create a new Texas Constitution.

6 Section 1: Texas Secession
Houston is Removed and War begins The Texas Secession Convention orders all state officials to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. Sam Houston refused to take the oath. President Lincoln offered to send in federal troops, Houston declined… Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark takes Houston’s place. Houston goes home to Huntsville to retire. President Lincoln was NOT going to let the states go without a fight- he claimed that the Union was perpetual and the southern states had NO right to leave.

7 Section 1: Texas Secession
Houston is Removed and War begins Confederate states seized all forts and navy yards within their borders. On April 12,1861, the US troops refused to leave Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, Confederates forces opened fire and marked the beginning of the Civil War.

8 Section 2: Texans Go to War
Many Texans become Soldiers Most Texans Support the South Many Texans joined at the beginning of the war, but by the end of the first year, more were needed. Confederate Congress send out the Conscription Act : Forced enrollment into the Military Men between the ages of 18 – 35 Excused some and allowed for the hiring of substitutes LATER- all men between the ages of 17 – 50 More than one- fourth of all Texans were against secession, however once the war started, most people supported the Confederacy. More than 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy, one- third fought in armies east of the Mississippi

9 Section 2: Texans Go to War
Some Texans Aid the Union Texans on the Attack More than 2,000 Texans joined the Union Army, about 50 were African Americans of them; Milton Holland won the Medal of Honor Some Texans didn’t want to fight for ANY ONE. They left Texas Some were killed while they were attempting to flee (group of Germany settlers) Many hid Some were captured and arrested Some were forced into the Confederate Army The Union army in the forts in Texas were allowed to leave until the start of the Civil War, the men left were held as prisoners of war. Confederate Soldiers

10 Section 2: Texans Go to War
Fighting for Galveston Texas ports were vital to the Confederate chain of supplies. Union was blockading all Texas ports to prevent goods and supplies from leaving and entering by water. Texas was still shipping cotton over land through Mexico to sell in Europe. . Union leaders wanted Galveston because of its busy sea port. In October of 1862, Union forces captured the city. General John B. Magruder made plans to retake Galveston. On two ships, soldiers sailed from the Buffalo Bayou (Houston) and attacked the Union They used bales of cotton to protect them from enemy fire 500 Confederate soldiers crossed the railroad bridge onto the island to attack the Union soldiers Texas wins and takes prisoners But the Union still block the port

11 Section 2: Texans Go to War
Texans Defend Sabine Pass Forces Battle Near Brownsville Union tried again to invade Texas by sailing up the Sabine River. Union transport vessels carrying 4,000 soldiers and 4 gun boats sailed from New Orleans (which was under Union control) Union troops were going to get off the boats and attack Houston and Beaumont on foot *** didn’t work- the Union had to pass by Fort Griffin that was ready and opened fire on the Union Army This was an important victory for the Confederacy, Union plans to launch a major campaign against Texas were dashed. November 1863, Union forces took Brownsville and moved up the Rio Grande- they were stopped near Laredo and driven back and the Confederacy retook Brownsville by July of 1864

12 Section 2: Texans Go to War
Red River and Beyond From New Orleans (again) the Union marched up the Sabine to the Red River (25,000 soldiers). Richard Taylor (son of former US President Zachary Taylor) led the Confederate Troops. The Confederates were out numbered and still took 2,000 prisoners. 15, ,000 Texans fought in armies east of the Mississippi River. Terry’s Texas Rangers were one of these units- they fought in more battles than did any other cavalry regiment in the Civil War.

13 Section 3: Home Front Hardships
Texas Confederates Take Charge War Changes Women’s Role War Changes the Economy Both War time Governors- Francis R. Lubbock and Pendleton Murrah devoted much of their time to the Confederate war effort. Texas suffered less physical damage than did other Confederate states because few battles were fought in the state. Life on plantations went on the same as it had before Smaller farms, the women and children did the work Women served as nurses- Rosanna Osterman turned her home into a hospital Farmers were encouraged to plant more corn and wheat to help feed the armies Texas opened small factories to manufacture cannons and ammunition Women made clothing for soldiers, and took jobs usually performed by men- teaching, shopkeepers and drivers.

14 Section 3: Home Front Hardships
Shortages Make Life Difficult Texans no longer got clothes from the North’s factories, women made loosely woven homemade fabric called Homespun- Governor Lubbock wore a homespun suit to his inauguration Couldn’t get: Coffee (had Confederate Coffee- peanuts, okra, barley, corn and sweet potatoes mix) Tea Salt Baking soda Paper- several newspapers suspended publication because they had NO paper. Medicines or hospital supplies

15 Section 3: Home Front Hardships
The Civil War Ends * General Lee and General Grant fought together in the Mexican American war of the had spoken to each other once before their meeting at Appomattox court house– Robert told Ulysses he was sloppy and to tuck in his shirt. FOUR YEARS OF FIGHTING North: More soldiers More money More factories making war materials The confederacy couldn’t keep up April 9, 1865 General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Within weeks Jefferson Davis was captured and the rest of the southern armies surrendered. The last battle took place on MAY 13, 1865 at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville. **** WHY a month later would they still be fighting in Texas??

16 Section 3: Home Front Hardships
The Civil War Ends Lincoln is killed: In the South… Now we have to rebuild the nation. More than 600,000 AMERICANS died. . North’s victory meant: Union was preserved Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves 13th amendment passed (later in 1865) Lincoln was killed on April 15, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth while watching a Play with his wife. South collapsed - Confederate leaders fled to Mexico - Lawless armed bands roamed the countryside - New President Andrew Johnson appoints Andrew Jackson Hamilton as provisional Governor in June 1865.

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