4Undue Influence - Anticipate Defenses Consent?Knowledge? Permission?Investment?Mistake?Salary / Payment? Quid Pro Quo?Gift? Inheritance?Debt?True Ownership? POA or Legal Authority?
5Undue Influence - Consent To Be True Consent, MustAct Freely and VoluntarilyNot Under Effects of Force, Fear, Duress, Promises. LiesKnowledge of True Nature of TransactionLegal Capacity to Make Intelligent Choice to Do, or Not Do, Action= Capacity and Med/Psych Issues at Work
6Undue Influence - Consent Consent is NOT Mere Passive AcquiescenceRequires Free Will and Positive CooperationClassic Offenses, and New Offenses, Recognize and Work On These PrinciplesNow, UNDUE INFLUENCE Enters…
7Undue Influence – What It Is Misuse of role and power to exploit the trust, dependency, and fear of another to deceptively gain control over person’s decision making (Margaret Singer)
8Undue Influence – What It Is Manipulation resulting from a relationship between the victim and suspect. Undue Influence assesses the impact of the suspect’s behavior on the elder (Bennett Blum)
9Undue Influence – Where It Comes From Same Tactics are seen in cults, swindles, hostage taking scenarios, and prisoner of war campsAlso seen in “Mind Games”Suspects are “Opportunists” and “Predators”
10Undue Influence - Components IsolationSiege MentalityDependencySense of PowerlessnessSense of Fear and VulnerabilityKept Unaware= Ripe for Elders, and Persons with Disabilities
11Undue Influence - Isolation SuspectControls All Means of Communication To and From Target/VictimTakes Advantage of Victim’s Personal SituationLossGriefFinancial NaivetyChanges in Health
12Undue Influence – Siege Mentality Suspect Uses Manipulation toCreates Pseudo World, Supported by Surrounding Events and Conditions Suspect Creates or Puts In PlaceIntentional Alienation of Target/Victim’s Family, Friends, Neighbors, Acquaintances, to Make Target/Victim Feel Threatened or Menaced or AbandonedAnd, Vice Versa
13Undue Influence - Dependency By Actions of Suspect, and Environment, Target/Victim Becomes Dependent on Suspect forCare, Shelter, FoodMedical NeedsDaily ActivitiesNews and InformationAccess to Larger WorldFriends, Safety, and Even Life
14Undue Influence - Powerlessness The Result of Manipulated isolation, Fostered Dependency and the Siege Mentality Create A Sense of Powerlessness in the Target/VictimTarget/Victim is Powerless Without SuspectUnable to Function on Own Without Suspect
15Undue Influence – Fear & Vulnerability In Becoming Utterly Dependent On the Suspect for all of Life’s Needs, the Target/Victim Believes They are Vulnerable and Dependent, and So Will Go Along With Suspect, and Not Contradict Suspect and ManipulationTarget/Victim Resists Seeking, or Accepting, Outside Help or Assistance
16Undue Influence – Staying Unaware Suspect Keeps Target/Victim In The Dark About Larger World and Reality and Opportunities For Outside Assistance, or EscapeLies, Exaggerations, Deceptions, Manipulations, Playing On Fears, Creating Dangers and Refuge
17Undue Influence and Consent Undue Influence is Focused on Overcoming Free WillTrue Consent = Knowing, Free, Voluntary Choices, NOT Threats, Force, Duress, False Promises, Lies and Half-TruthsUndue Influence is where Will of Suspect Overrides Will of Target/Victim to give “apparent consent”
18Undue Influence - Investigations Financial RecordsMedical / Psych RecordsOral / Family HistoryLots of Leg Work!
19Undue Influence - Investigations Victim Risk FactorsALL of Life CircumstancesDependent Relationship – Suspect to TargetSocial ConditionsTechniques to Isolate Target/Victim from Reality to Gain Power and ControlLoss or Harm to Target/Victim(Dr. Susan Bernatz)
20Undue Influence - IDEAL I IsolationD Dependence on SuspectE Emotional Exploitation, or Exploitation of VulnerabilityA Acquiescence by Target/VictimL Loss, Financial or Other(Dr. Bennett Blum)
21Undue Influence - Investigations Questions to AskHas Victim Suffered A Loss?Ill?Depressed?Isolated?What Is the Suspect / Victim and Outside World Relationship?
22Undue Influence - Investigations The Event(s) or Transaction(s) or Crime(s)Did Victim Have Time to Think, Consider?Was Victim Rushed?Were Promises, or Threats, Made?What Is Suspect’s Role in Life of Victim, in Relation to Event(s)?
23Undue Influence - Investigations Could or Did Victim Consult Any Third Party? A TRUE Third Party?Does Victim Even Understand Transaction?Was Transaction Fully Explained?What Was Happening Before and During Explanations?What Are Costs and Benefits to Victim and Suspect?
24Undue Influence - Investigations What Was Victim Like BEFORE Suspect Entered The Scene?Monetary Habits?Patterns?Generosity? Frugality?Record Keeping?Confidants and Reliable Assistants?
25Undue Influence - Investigations Will Victim Testify?Can Victim Testify?Do You Have ANOTHER Form of Theft, Aside or In Addition To, Undue Influence?Capacity?Fear? Force? Embezzlement? False Pretenses?