Participant Signal Acquisition Task Feedback fMRI-BCI Computer: Preprocessing Signal analysis
Neurofeedback Information about neural activity provided to subjects in real time to facilitate learned self-regulation changes in brain fxn, cognition, behavior (Stoekel et al., 2014) rtfMRI-BCI BOLD in predetermined region of interest (ROI) Signal translated to visual cue Operant training to voluntarily regulate activation in ROI Clinical relevance (i.e. anterior insula; hypoactive in patients with attenuated affect) Behavioral regulation strategies to up-regulate activation Paired w/ behavioral task & subjective input
Single ROI in Healthy Individuals Movement e.g. arm/hand primary motor areas, premotor cortex Imagery of movement, cognitive strategies to elicit particular activation Task involves navigating maze, maintaining optimal activation Cognition Perception Emotion e.g. amygdala, anterior insula Self-ratings of emotional arousal, valence/arousal ratings of images Successful self-regulation and improved performance/symptoms in PD, hemiparesis, schizophrenia, addiction, depression
Schizophrenia patient activation clusters and BOLD time series during insula self- regulation (red) and baseline (blue) in early and late training sessions (Ruiz et al., 2013)
Ruiz et al. (2013) Changes observed as result of single ROI self-regulation training. Effective connectivity changes reflected by CD
Functional Connectivity Enhancement Can subjects enhance functional connectivity w/ training? Ruiz et al. (2011) provided feedback of correlation coefficient between IFG & STG over sessions of training Successful up-regulation of connectivity between inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus Semantic priming task performed pre/post training sessions w/ observed enhancement
Limitations/Future Directions Control condition? No feedback, sham feedback, control region, etc. Lack information on mental strategies, influence of attention/motivation Focus on up-regulation Pair equitable performance w/ down-regulation? Regions chosen a priori RT processing capacity for > 2 ROIs?? Future directions for movement & rehabilitation research?
References Stoeckel, L. E., Garrison, K. A., Ghosh, S. S., Wighton, P.,..., Evins, A. E. (2014). Optimizing real time fMRI neurofeedback for therapeutic discovery and development. Neuroimage: Clinical, 5, 245-255. Ruiz, S., Buyukturkoglu, K., Tana, M., Birbaumer, N., & Sitaram, R. (2014). Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: Self-regulation of single brain regions to networks. Biological Psychology, 95, 4-20. Ruiz, S., Rana, M., Sass, K., Kircher, T., Birbaumer, N., & Sitaram, R. (2011). Brain network connectivity and behaviour enhancement: A fMRI-BCI study. In 17 th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Quebec City, Canada. Ruiz, S., Lee, S., Soekadar, S. R., Caria, A., Veit, R., Kircher, T., Birbaumer, N., & Sitaram, R. (2013) Acquired self-control of insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and brain network connectivity in schizophrenia.