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BASICS OF MANAGEMENT Labour Welfare Schemes By:- Harjinder Pal Singh Lect. Mech. Dated:04-04-2013 Govt. Polytechnic College Batala.

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Presentation on theme: "BASICS OF MANAGEMENT Labour Welfare Schemes By:- Harjinder Pal Singh Lect. Mech. Dated:04-04-2013 Govt. Polytechnic College Batala."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BASICS OF MANAGEMENT Labour Welfare Schemes By:- Harjinder Pal Singh Lect. Mech. Dated: Govt. Polytechnic College Batala

3 Labour Welfare Schemes LEGAL ASPECT OF BUSINESS: The interests of employees and the entrepreneurs are often contradictory and conflicting. Due to continuously increasing cost of living, the labour force expects higher wages, allowances and other facilities etc. The employers on other hand try to keep the cost of production at the lowest possible level. They try to pay the lowest possible wages to workers and get the maximum possible work out of them. The result is a clash of interests. 93

4 Labour Welfare Schemes LEGAL ASPECT OF BUSINESS: If the employer is not able to satisfy the needs of the workers, the workers also don’t perform at the optimum level. Unsatisfied workers becomes the cause of industrial unrest which may take the form of a strike, ghereo, bandh etc.- 92

5 Labour Welfare Schemes LEGAL ASPECT OF BUSINESS: The entrepreneur on the other hand can be forced to a lockout. Thus, the interests of both the parties are put at stake. Industrial laws serve to safeguard the interests of both and ensure industrial peace and development. 91

6 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: Upto 1881, there was no law related to labour welfare in India. The Indian factories act was passed in the year After this a number of such laws were passed to regulate the working conditions in industries. Prior to this law, the workers were exploited for the following reasons: (i) Labour was available in abundance. They badly needed work to fulfil their requirements, basic needs can’t wait for their satisfaction. The workers had no other source of livelihood. They 90

7 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: only had their labour and skill to sell. (ii) Labour was ill educated, too poor and ignorant. They didn,t know about their contribution to profit and their importance in the process of production, nor could they think because being poor they couldn’t think of anything other than earning for their basic needs. (iii) Industrialization and employment in factories was a comparatively new process for Indian workers and so it didn’t provide them with much 89

8 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: experience. Due to lack of contact with other parts of the world, they didn’t know what rights their counterparts in other parts of the world enjoy. (iv) Workers feared their employers. They were compelled to work as directed by the employers who sometimes even used physical force to compel them. Even greater was the fear of retrenchment. 88

9 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: (v) The entrepreneurs enjoyed greater proximity to political power circles. They were financially sound and so could twist the situation their way. (vi) If work came to a halt, the entrepreneurs lost only their profits where as the worker lost their livelihood and had to suffer from hunger. 87

10 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: WORKING CONDITIONS: The workers had to work under miserable working conditions which can be termed as inhuman. 1. The work places were insufficient, there was no provision of drinking water, urinals, bathrooms, waiting rooms, canteens etc. 86

11 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: WORKING CONDITIONS: 2. There was no provision for overtime payment. 3. Leave facility was not provided to workers. Deduction was made in their wages for the amount of leave taken. 4. In case of worker met an accident in the working hours, no compensation was paid to him 85

12 Labour Welfare Schemes HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA: WORKING CONDITIONS: 5. Women and children were made to work for long hours under unsafe and unhygienic conditions. 84

13 Labour Welfare Schemes INDUSTRIAL LEGISLATION AND LAWS: Industrial laws or labour laws The laws framed by the Government for providing economic and social justice to the workers in industries are called Industrial laws or labour laws. Industrial legislation can be divided into two categories: 1.General legislation. 2.Specific legislation. 83

14 Labour Welfare Schemes INDUSTRIAL LEGISLATION AND LAWS: 1. General legislation: General legislation takes care of the general labour problems like social welfare, insurance and industrial disputes. 2. Specific legislation : Specific legislation looks after the work of specific industries like transport, mines, electricity generation, plantation, waste disposal etc. 82

15 Labour Welfare Schemes NEED OF INDUSTRIAL OR LABOUR LAWS: In modern industrial organisation, labour laws are necessary and their main aim is; (i) To save the workers from exploitation and to protect their rights: Government showed a human concern in passing these laws so that workers get their due rights and are not exploited. 81

16 Labour Welfare Schemes NEED OF INDUSTRIAL OR LABOUR LAWS: (ii) To minimize and settle industrial disputes: These laws serve to improve relations among management and workers so that a peaceful atmosphere is created for maximum production. 80

17 Labour Welfare Schemes NEED OF INDUSTRIAL OR LABOUR LAWS: (iii) To provide better and safe working conditions for the workers: Laws make sure that work, machines, equipment, tools and the environment of an industry is safe for the working of human beings. 79

18 Labour Welfare Schemes NEED OF INDUSTRIAL OR LABOUR LAWS: (iv) To determine timely and justified payment of wages, incentives and compensation : Various labour laws provide that payment of wages is on a fair basis and that the wages are sufficient to meet the need of workers. 78

19 Labour Welfare Schemes NEED OF INDUSTRIAL OR LABOUR LAWS: (iv) To provide security of job: In the service of a worker are to be terminated, laws provide for the compensation or any other monetarily benefit to be paid by the employer, failing which the worker can go in the court. 77

20 Labour Welfare Schemes ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF LABOUR WELFARE CONCEPT IN INDIA: The transference of rural population to the urban areas, as a result of industrialization, brought with it certain sociological problems. Having been up rooted from their rural mornings, the new class of industrial workers required welfare services to be provided to them in their new surroundings so as to enable them to adapt themselves to changing situations. 76

21 Labour Welfare Schemes ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF LABOUR WELFARE CONCEPT IN INDIA: Originally conceived as a humanitarian approach, the employers realised the value of providing better working and living conditions to their employees. What was, therefore, essentially a humanitarian approach in the initial stages, gave rise to utilitarian philosophy as motivating force for providing welfare amenities to the working population. 75

22 Labour Welfare Schemes ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF LABOUR WELFARE CONCEPT IN INDIA: Mahatma Gandhi, through his general programme for upliftment of the toiling masses of the country made a considerable impact upon the concept of Labour welfare in India. “I do not want any thing more for the workers and farmer class then enough to eat and house and clothes themselves and live in ordinary comfort as self respecting human beings”. 74

23 Labour Welfare Schemes Labour Welfare Schemes: Organization provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation level high. Welfare means the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare keeps the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. It is not necessary that the welfare measures to be in monetary terms but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of - 73

24 Labour Welfare Schemes Labour Welfare Schemes: - working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployement for the workers and their families. Labour welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages of salaries. 72

25 Labour Welfare Schemes Labour Welfare has the following objectives: 1) Labour welfare provides social comfort to employees. 2) It provides intellectual improvement of employees. 3) To develop sense of responsibility and belongingness among employees. 4) To ensures that the working conditions for employees are of higher standard. 5) To build stable work force. 71

26 Labour Welfare Schemes Labour Welfare has the following objectives: 6) To reduce absenteeism and labour turnover. 7) To make employees lives good and worth living. 8) To boost productivity and efficiency at the workplace. 9) To provide healthy and proper working conditions. 10) To ensure well being of employees and families. 70

27 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE: In India, industrial workers get the benefit of various welfare facilities. The purpose is to provide them better life and to make them happy. The important benefit of welfare services are given below: 1)Welfare facilities provide scope for better physical and mental health to the workers. 2)Labour welfare brings industrial peace and cordial relations between labour and management. 69

28 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE: 3) The social evil in the labour force such as gambling, drinking etc. are reduced. 4) Employer gets stable labour force due to provision of welfare facilities. 5) Workers take active interest in their jobs. 6) Employer secures the benefits of high efficiency and low labour absenteeism and minimum employee turnover. Facilities like housing, medical benefits and education facilities help to increase productivity of workers 68

29 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE: Factories Act, 1948, contains specific provisions relating to welfare of labour in factories. These provisions are discussed below: (1)Washing facility: In every factory, suitable facilities for working shall be provided for the use of workers. Such facilities shall be kept clean. 67

30 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (2) Facility for storing clothes/uniforms: A suitable place should be provided to the workers for keeping clothes during the time of work and uniforms overnight. 66

31 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (3) Facilities for sitting: In every factory, suitable arrangement for sitting shall be provided and maintained, for all workers. 65

32 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (4) First Aid Facility: The arrangement for first- aid shall be made in every factory. One first-aid box is to be provided for every 150 workers. First-aid facility has always to be made available during the working hours of the factory. 64

33 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (5) Canteens: A canteen shall be provided in each factory employing over 250 workers. Suitable shelter, lunch room and rest room shall be provided for the use of the workers where more than 150 workers are employed. 63

34 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (6) Creches: Every factory shall provide clean, well lighted creches (room) for the use of children of women workers. 62

35 Labour Welfare Schemes PROVISIONS OF THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 REGARDING LABOUR WELFARE : (7) Welfare Officer: In every factory where 500 or more workers are employed, the employer shall employ Welfare Officer in the factory. 61

36 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: The Study appointed by the Government of India in 1959 to examine labour welfare activities then existing, divided the entire range of these activities into three groups, i.e. (1) Welfare work within the boundary of an establishment- medical aid, creches, canteens, supply of drinking water etc. It means that the welfare activities are undertaken within boundary of an establishment. 60

37 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (2) Welfare work outside the boundary of an establishment- provision for indoor and outdoor recreation, housing, adult education, visual instructions, etc. and; (3) Social Security measures etc. 59

38 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: The committee of experts on Welfare Facilities for Industrial Workers called meeting by ILO in 1963 had divided welfare services into following groups: (a)Intra-Mural Activities. (b)Extra-Mural Activities. (c)Statutory, voluntary and Mutual Welfare Facilities. 58

39 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (a)Intra-Mural Activities: The labour welfare activities that are provided inside the industry are known as Intra-Mural activities. According to the recommendations of the ILO, the welfare activities within the boundary of the establishment includes the facilities such as; (1)Latrines and Urinals, (2)Washing and bathing facilities. (3)Creches, 57

40 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (a)Intra-Mural Activities: (4) Rests shelters and Canteens, (5) Arrangement for drinking water, (6) Arrangement for prevention of fatigue, (7) Health services including occupational safety, (8) Administrative arrangement within a plant to look after welfare, (9) Uniform and protective clothing and, (10) Shifting allowance. 56

41 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Extra-Mural Activities: The welfare activities that are provided outside the establishment are known as extra-mural activities. According to the recommendations of the ILO, the welfare activities outside the establishment include facilities such as : (1)Maternity benefits, (2)Social Insurance measures including gratuity, pension, provident fund and rehabilitation, 55

42 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Extra-Mural Activities: (3) Benevolent fund, (4) Medical facilities including programmes for physical fitness and efficiency, family planning and child-welfare, (5) Educational facilities including adult education, (6) Housing facilities, 54

43 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Extra-Mural Activities: (7) Recreation facilities, including sports, cultural activities, library and reading room, (8) Holiday homes and leave and travel facilities, (9) Workers cooperatives including consumer cooperative stores, fair price shops and co- operative thrift and credit societies. (10) Vocational training for dependents of workers, 53

44 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Extra-Mural Activities: (11) Other programmes for the welfare of women, youth and children and (12) Transport to and from the place of work. 52

45 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Statutory, Voluntary and Mutual Welfare Facilities: Labour welfare work may also be divided into three categories: (1)Statutory ; (2)Voluntary and (3)Mutual. 51

46 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Statutory, Voluntary and Mutual Welfare Facilities: (1)Statutory: Statutory welfare work constitute those provisions of welfare work which are provided in different factory Acts and it is obligatory on the part of the employers to observe these provisions. 50

47 Labour Welfare Schemes CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: (b) Statutory, Voluntary and Mutual Welfare Facilities: (2) Voluntary Welfare: Voluntary Welfare works includes those activities which are undertaken by employers for their workers voluntarily. (3) Mutual Welfare: Mutual Welfare is a corporate enterprise of the workers themselves. For instance, if workers decide to improve their lot on the basis of mutual help, it may be called a mutual welfare work. Trade unions for this purpose undertake many provisions for the welfare of the workers. 49

48 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE WORK: The usefulness of welfare work in India can not be over emphasized. Welfare activities influence the sentiments of the workers. When worker feels that the employers and the State are interested in their happiness, his tendency to grouse and grumble will steadily disappear. The development of such a feeling makes the way for industrial peace. 48

49 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE WORK: Secondly, the provision of various welfare measures such as good housing, canteens, medical and sickness benefits etc. makes them realise that they also stake in the undertaking in which they are engaged and so they think thrice before taking any reckless action. Thirdly, welfare measures, such as cheap food in canteens, free medical and educational facilities, etc. indirectly increase the real income of the - 47

50 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE WORK: workers. If the workers go on strike they will be deprived of all these facilities. Hence they try to avoid industrial disputes as possible and do not go strike on flimsy grounds. Fourthly, welfare activities will reduce labour turnover and absenteesim and create permanent settled labour force by making service attractive to the labour. Fifthly, welfare activities will go a long way to better the mental and moral health of workers- 46

51 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE WORK: by reducing the incidence of vices of industrialisation. Removed from native village and thrust into a strange and unfavourable environment the workers are liable to fall a prey to drinking, gambling and prostitution. Congenial environment as a result of welfare measures will act as deterrent against such social vices. Lastly, welfare measures will improve the physique, intelligence, morality and standard of- 45

52 Labour Welfare Schemes IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE WORK: - efficiency can be expected only from persons who are persons, who are properly trained, properly housed, properly fed and properly clothed. 44

53 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 1. SANITARY AND HYGIENE FACILITIES: The maintenance of a clean, sanitary and hygienic work environment is now taken for granted as an important basic welfare amenity. These include toilets, water for drinking and washing. Sanitary and hygienic conditions were extremely poor when Labour investigation, 1946 reported. The committee observed that, “ apart from making the minimum arrangement which- 43

54 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 1. SANITARY AND HYGIENE FACILITIES: - get away with, service and maintenance appeared to be so poor that if they existed at all, the workers felt it impossible to make use of the so called facilities”. The Factories Act, 1948 requires that every factory must be kept clean. A sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water an enterprise could - 42

55 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 1. SANITARY AND HYGIENE FACILITIES: -must be made available at suitable and convenient points; that separate latrines and urinals for male and female workers must be provided; that spittons must be kept at convenient places in a clean and hygienic condition; and that adequate, suitable, clean, conveniently accessible and separately screened washing facilities must be provided for male - 41

56 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 1. SANITARY AND HYGIENE FACILITIES: -and female workers. More or less similar facilities are provided in Plantation Labour Act 1951 and Coal Mines Act

57 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 2. WASHING FACILITIES: The Labour Investigation Committee (1946) observed that, “barring exceptions of tanneries, printing presses and sugar factories, bathing and washing facilities were totally absent, and where they did exist, other accessories for bathing were missing.” The committee after explaining the imperative necessity for a coal miner to wash himself at the end of the day’s- 39

58 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 2. WASHING FACILITIES: -work, observed that special arrangements for washing or bathing in coal mines were an exception. Workers washed or bathed in an adjoining tank from an open surface hydrant which drew out the mine water. Bathing and washing facilities are now provided by every employer where Factory Act, 1948, Coal Mines Act, 1952 and Plantation Labour - 38

59 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 2. WASHING FACILITIES: -Act, 1951 is applicable, irrespective of the number of works employed therein. 37

60 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 3. DRINKING WATER: The Labour Investigation Committee pointed out that most factories made some provision for drinking water, but the arrangements neither uniform nor satisfactory. In textile mills, factories, bidi works, tanneries, printing presses, glass and sugar factories, mines and plantation, no arrangements generally existed; where they did, they altogether unsatisfactory. However, it- 36

61 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 3. DRINKING WATER: -was only in cement factories that there were satisfactory arrangements for supply of drinking water. Now, it is statutory obligation upon the employers to make satisfactory arrangements of drinking water for their works. All employers are required to make satisfactory arrangements for drinking water under the Factories Act, 1948, - 35

62 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 3. DRINKING WATER: -Coal Mines Act, 1952, Plantation Labour Act, 1951, irrespective of the size of establishment. At present, almost all large scale industries have made satisfactory arrangements for drinking water. 34

63 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 4. First-Aid Box: Maintenance of first aid box for every factory employing 150 workers is a minimum “must” which can not be allowed to be ignored by any occupier of a factory establishment. 33

64 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 4. First-Aid Box: This is a provision which is not generally taken seriously although the utility of it can hardly be minimized or considered superfluous. However, the labour welfare committee (1969) recommended that, this provision should be enforced strictly and sufficient number of personnel be trained in all establishments in consultation and cooperation with the - 32

65 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 4. First-Aid Box: -respective authorities and trade unions. 31

66 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 5. Ambulance Room: The Factories Act, 1948 lays down that, in every factory where in more than 500 workers are employed, there shall be provided and maintained an ambulance room of the prescribed size, containing the prescribed - 30

67 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 5. Ambulance Room: -equipment and incharged of such medical nursing staff as may be prescribed. However, the Labour Welfare Committee (1969) felt that, the limit of 500 workers was kept at a time when country had only traditional and conventional industries which are more labour intensive like- textile and suger etc. 29

68 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 5. Ambulance Room: -textile and suger etc., with the progressive growth of capital intensive industries as well as development of hazardous nature of industries like petrochemicals, automation and the use of nuclear energy in the near future, it is necessary that ambulance rooms should also be provided by establishments employing less than 500 workers. 28

69 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 6. Feeding Facilities (Canteens): The Labour Investigation Committee realeased the importance of as a welfare amenity. It said, “the workers canteen is increasingly recognised all over the world as an essential part of the industrial establishment, providing undeniable – 27

70 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 6. Feeding Facilities (Canteens): -benefits from the point of view of health, efficiency and well-being. To introduce and element of nutritional balance into the otherwise deficient and unbalanced dietry of the workers, to provide cheap and clean food and opportunity to relax in comfort near the place of work, to save time and truble to workers an account of exhausting journeys to - 26

71 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 6. Feeding Facilities (Canteens): -and from work after long hours in the factory: These are some of the objects of industrial canteen”. 25

72 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 7. Creches: It is a welfare facility which is provided for women workers. A Creche is defined as a place where babies of working mothers are taken care of, while mothers are at work. 24

73 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 7. Creches: The plantation Labour Act, 1951, provides that all plantations where 50 or more women workers are employed should provide and maintain a suitable room for the use of children of such women who are below the age of six years. The room should have adequate accommodation; adequately lighted and ventilated; should be situated in a clean and - 23

74 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA A) INTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 7. Creches: -sanitary conditions and it should be under the charge of a women trained in the care of children and infants. 22

75 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 1. Medical facilities: The importance of industrial health and care in general has been emphasised by the ILO since The Royal commission on Labour in 1931 and the Labour Investigation committee in 1946 also emphasised and necessity of providing- 21

76 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 1. Medical facilities: - basic health and medical facilities to industrial workers, since it will help to reduce the incidence of sickness and, therefore, absenteesim among them and increase productivity. Prior to the medical facilities provided through the Employees State Insurance 20

77 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 1. Medical facilities: - Corporation, cement factories, sugar factories, some large tanneries and several units in the textile industry, had their own arrangements for treatment of workers. 19

78 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 2. Educational facilities: The Central Workers Educational Board has helped to improve the standards of workers all over the country. The Workers Education Programme has been started with special emphasis on trade unions methods and philosophy. 18

79 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 2. Educational facilities: Almost all public sector undertakings have established primary and even higher secondary schools in their townships. 17

80 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 2. Educational facilities: Some of large scale private sector undertakings have established colleges in their twonships both for catering to the need of workers children in general education as well as for technical education. 16

81 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 3. Recreational facilities: At present, in large establishment increasing attention has been paid recreational activities. Some establishments bear the capital cost of construction of buildings design for recreation and the cost of sports material and also make available grant-in aid to meet day to day - 15

82 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 3. Recreational facilities: -recurring costs. Some employers give grants on matching basis. However, the scale of facilities offered varies from employer to employer and from project to project. In almost all the public sector undertakings, provision of indoor and outdoor games has been 14

83 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 3. Recreational facilities: -made a part and parcel of the project plan itself. Right from the initial construction stage of the plant, budget provisions for amenities like sports, club, reading rooms, games and athletics, cultural activities etc., are made. 13

84 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Transport facilities: The provision of adequate and cheap transport facilities to workers residing at long distance is essential as such facilities not only relieve the workers from strain and anxiety but also provide opportunity for greater relaxation and recreation. Provision of transport facilities also- 12

85 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Transport facilities: Helps in reducing the rate of absentation particularly when it is on account of late arrival. Reduction of absenteeism on account of late arrival of worker not only helps industry but also reduces the tension and strain amongst the workers. 11

86 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Consumer’s Cooperative Stores and Fair Price Shops: The importance of consumer’s cooperative stores and fair shops was highlighted by the National Cooperative Development and Warehousing Board Committee of 1961; by the Indian Labour Conference in its 20 th Session in The conference adopted a scheme for setting up consumer’s cooperative stores in all- 10

87 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Consumer’s Cooperative Stores and Fair Price Shops: -industrial establishments, including plantations and mines, employing 300 or more workers. 9

88 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Distress Relief and Cash Benifits: Non-Statutory welfare amenities provided to the workers cover a wide range depending upon the importance that an empolyer attaches to these benefits for the creation of goodwill amongst his workers. One of these amenities is in the nature of ex-gratia payments popularly known as distress relief and cash benefits. The Imperial Tabacco Company of India give a max.- 8

89 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE PRACTICES IN INDIA B) EXTRA-MURAL LABOUR WELFARE FACILITIES: 4. Distress Relief and Cash Benifits: Sum of Rs. 100,000 to the dependents on the death of a worker. The Delhi Cloth and General Mills Ltd., has constituted as Employees Benefits Fund to help the workers on the occasion of the marriage of their dependents etc. 7

90 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 1. EMPLOYEES’ PENSION SCHEME, 1995: This scheme was introduced on 19 th November, 1995 for the industrial workers. Under the scheme, pension at the rate of 50% of pay is payable to the employees on retirement. A minimum 10 year’s service is required for pension. The scheme also provides for grant of family pension ranging from Rs. 450 per month to Rs per month. 6

91 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 2. THE WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT,1923: Workmen’s Compensation Act was passed in It provides for compensation to workmen in case of industrial accidents and resulting in death or disablement. The Act prescribes separate scales of compensation for death, permanent disablement and temporary disablement. The object of the Act is to impose an obligation on employers to pay compensation to workers for accident during- 5

92 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 2. THE WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT,1923: -the employment. The Act covers all workmen employed in railways, factories and mines, etc. 4

93 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 3. THE MATERNITY BENEFITS ACT, 1961: Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 was made by the Central Government. This act provides maternity benefits to the women workers. Various objects of this act are: a.To regulate the employment of women for specified period before and after child birth. b.To provide maternity benefits to women workers at the rate of average daily basis. c.To provide for certain benefits in case illness arising out of pregnancy. 3

94 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 4. THE PAYMENT OF GRATUITY ACT, 1972: The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is applicable to factories, mines, plantations, railways, motor transport companies and shops. The Act provides for payment of gratuity at the rate of 15 day’s wages for each completed year of service. The Act does not effect the right of an employee to receive better terms of gratuity under any contract with the employer. 2

95 Labour Welfare Schemes LABOUR WELFARE SCHEMES UNDER OTHER ACTS 5. THE PLANTATION LABOUR ACT, 1951: The following welfare facilities are to be provided to the plantation workers: a.Housing facilities for every worker and his family residing at the plantation. b.Educational facilities for the children of workers. c.Canteen in plantation if there are 150 or more workers. d.Recreational facilities for the workers. 1

96 ASSIGNMENT Q.1 Give the importance and necessity of industrial legislation in India? Q.2 What are the various labour welfare schemes as applicable in Indian history? Q.3 Write down the different types of labour welfare schemes. Q.4 Write down the objectives of labour legislation. Q.5 Write down the Non Statutory Schemes in detail.

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