# Total Revenue Test Uses elasticity to show how changes in price will affect total revenue (TR). (TR = Price x Quantity) Elastic Demand- Price increase.

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Total Revenue Test Uses elasticity to show how changes in price will affect total revenue (TR). (TR = Price x Quantity) Elastic Demand- Price increase causes TR to decrease Price decrease causes TR to increase Inelastic Demand- Price increase causes TR to increase Price decrease causes TR to decrease Unit Elastic- Price changes and TR remains unchanged Ex: If demand for milk is INelastic, what will happen to expenditures on milk if price increases?

Is the range between A and B, elastic, inelastic, or unit elastic?
10 x 100 =\$1000 Total Revenue 5 x 225 =\$1125 Total Revenue A Price decreased and TR increased, so… Demand is ELASTIC 50% B 125%

You Should Now Get This Elastic and Inelastic Demand Baby
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Total Revenue Test

Total Revenue Test }inelastic } unit elastic }elastic

Password Demand Substitute Inferior Good Elastic Total Revenue Test

Terms Subsidy Supply Excise Tax Inelastic Elasticity Coefficient

Elasticity Practice 8

Graph the following chart
Calculate the Ed using the top set of numbers and prices rising

Answers - Ed Ed = % change in quantity demanded of product X
% change in price of product X % Change in quantity = nqd – iqd initial quantity demanded % Change in price = New Price – Initial Price Initial price Ed = (90 – 100) ÷ 100 (\$2 - \$1.00) ÷ \$1.00 Ed = = -.1 1 Drop the negative: Ed is < 1 therefore the demand for is INelastic

Calculate the TR and determine if Total Revenue increased or decreased with a price increase
What is gain or loss on price move?

Answers \$3 * 70 = \$210 \$2 * 90 = \$180 Total Revenue increased \$30

What Happens If --- Graph the following chart
Calculate the Ed using the bottom two numbers and prices rising

Answers - Ed Ed = % change in quantity demanded of product X
% change in price of product X % Change in quantity = nqd – iqd initial quantity demanded % Change in price = New Price – Initial Price Initial price Ed = (40 – 70) ÷ 70 (\$4 - \$3.00) ÷ \$3.00 Ed = or % = 1.28 or 33.33% Drop the negative: Ed is > 1 therefore the demand for is elastic

Ed & TR Test “quiz”

Practice Problem See handout

Consumer and Producer Surplus
Consumer Surplus Difference between maximum price willing to pay and the actual price producers charge Think of it as a “willing to pay” curve

Marginal Benefit & Surplusses
What you gain when you get one more unit Measured by what you are willing to give up Everyday life we say “getting value for our money” There is a difference between value and price

Value vs. Price Value is what we get Price is what we pay
Everyday idea of value is marginal benefit OR The measure of the maximum price what consumers are willing to pay for another unit of a good or service

Pizza Sales Per Slice 2 1.5 \$1 .5 P D 10 20 30 40 Consumer Surplus
Consumer surplus from 10th slice of pizza P Willing to pay Market Price Amount Paid D 10

Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits.

Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits.

Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits.

Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits.

Example of Voluntary Exchange
Ex: You want to buy a truck so you go to the local dealership. You are willing to spend up to \$20,000 for a new 4x4. The seller is willing to sell this truck for no less than \$15,000. After some negotiation you buy the truck for \$18,000. Analysis: Buyer’ Maximum- Sellers Minimum- Price- Consumer’s Surplus- Producer’s Surplus- \$20,000 \$15,000 \$18,000 \$2,000 \$3,000

Voluntary Exchange Terms
Consumer Surplus is the difference between what you are willing to pay and what you actually pay. CS = Buyer’s Maximum – Price Producer’s Surplus is the difference between the price the seller received and how much they were willing to sell it for. PS = Price – Seller’s Minimum

Pearl Exchange Activity
28

Voluntary Exchange Activity
29

Consumer and Producer’s Surplus
Calculate the : Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus Total Surplus \$10 8 6 \$5 4 2 1 S CS PS D 10 Q

Calculating Consumer Surplus In Dollars
Max Willing to pay Actual price (E) Calculate CS \$9 \$5 9 – 5 = \$4 \$8 8 – 5 = \$3 \$7 7 – 5 = \$2 \$6 6 – 5 = \$1 5 – 5 = \$0 Sum = CS = \$10

Calculating Producer Surplus In Dollars
Min Price charged Actual price (E) Calculate PS \$2 \$5 5 – 2 = \$3 5 - 3 = \$4 5 - 4 = \$1 5 – 5 = \$0 Sum = PS = \$6

Surpluses Could be calculated in Quantity

Summary Consumption Inefficiency Production Inefficiency

Practice Problem Name of Consumer Price willing to pay Matt \$20 Don
\$15 Sarah \$8 George \$12 Ann \$7 Q. If dinner sells for \$10, what is the value of Dons’ consumer surplus?

Practice Problem Name of Consumer Price willing to pay Matt \$20 Don
\$15 Sarah \$8 George \$12 Ann \$7 Q. If dinner sells for \$10, what is the value of Dons’ consumer surplus? A. Willing to pay is \$15. Market price is \$10. Willing to pay (\$15) – Actual Price (\$10) = \$5

Practice Problem Name of Consumer Price willing to pay Matt \$20 Don
\$15 Sarah \$8 George \$12 Ann \$7 Q. If dinner sells for \$11, what is the TOTAL value of consumer surplus?

Practice Problem Name of Consumer Price willing to pay Matt \$20 Don
\$15 Sarah \$8 George \$12 Ann \$7 Q. If dinner sells for \$11, what is the TOTAL value of consumer surplus? 20 – 11 = 9, 15 – 11 = 4, 12 – 11 = 1 = \$14 consumer surplus

For a given linier demand curve, the value of consumer surplus does what as market price increases?

For a given linier demand curve, the value of consumer surplus does what as market price increases?
Decreases as market price increases

(1) Price (2) QA (3) (4) QB (5) (6) QC (7) \$10 100 \$_____ 9 111 _____ 130 110 8 125 170 120 7 143 220 6 167 280 140 5 200 350 150 15. A marketing firm has done a study of market demand for DVDs of three different movies. Calculate the total revenue for each movie in columns 3, 5, and 7. Without calculating the price elasticity of demand, indicate whether demand for each movie is elastic, inelastic or unit-elastic. For which movie would a reduction in price produce the greatest increase in revenue?

(1) Price (2) QA (3) (4) QB (5) (6) QC (7) \$10 100 \$1000 9 111 999 130
(4) QB (5) (6) QC (7) \$10 100 \$1000 9 111 999 130 1170 110 990 8 125 1000 170 1360 120 960 7 143 1001 220 1540 910 6 167 1002 280 1680 140 840 5 200 350 1750 150 750 Without calculating the price elasticity of demand, indicate whether demand for each movie is elastic, inelastic or unit-elastic. For which movie would a reduction in price produce the greatest increase in revenue? Applying the total revenue test, we see that total revenues remain approximately constant for movie A, meaning that demand is unit-elastic. Total revenues for movie B are increasing as price decreases, meaning that demand for movie B is elastic. Total revenues for movie C are decreasing as price decreases, meaning the demand for movie C is inelastic. [text: E pp ; MA pp ; MI pp ]

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