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Total Revenue Test Uses elasticity to show how changes in price will affect total revenue (TR). (TR = Price x Quantity) Elastic Demand- Price increase.

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Presentation on theme: "Total Revenue Test Uses elasticity to show how changes in price will affect total revenue (TR). (TR = Price x Quantity) Elastic Demand- Price increase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Total Revenue Test Uses elasticity to show how changes in price will affect total revenue (TR). (TR = Price x Quantity) Elastic Demand- Price increase causes TR to decrease Price decrease causes TR to increase Inelastic Demand- Price increase causes TR to increase Price decrease causes TR to decrease Unit Elastic- Price changes and TR remains unchanged Ex: If demand for milk is INelastic, what will happen to expenditures on milk if price increases?

2 Is the range between A and B, elastic, inelastic, or unit elastic? A B 10 x 100 =$1000 Total Revenue 5 x 225 =$1125 Total Revenue Price decreased and TR increased, so… Demand is ELASTIC 125% 50%

3 You Should Now Get This Elastic and Inelastic Demand Baby –Winner 2013 Econ video contest 3

4 Total Revenue Test

5 } inelastic } unit elastic } elastic

6 Password 1.Demand 2.Substitute 3.Inferior Good 4.Elastic 5.Total Revenue Test

7 Terms 1.Subsidy 2.Supply 3.Excise Tax 4.Inelastic 5.Elasticity Coefficient

8 Elasticity Practice 8

9 Graph the following chart Calculate the E d using the top set of numbers and prices rising

10 Answers -Graph This is what your graph should look like

11 Answers - E d Ed = % change in quantity demanded of product X % change in price of product X % Change in quantity = nqd – iqd initial quantity demanded % Change in price = New Price – Initial Price Initial price Ed = (90 – 100) ÷ 100 ($2 - $1.00) ÷ $1.00 Ed = -.10 = -.1 1 Drop the negative: E d is < 1 therefore the demand for is INelastic

12 Calculate the TR and determine if Total Revenue increased or decreased with a price increase What is gain or loss on price move?

13 Answers $3 * 70 = $210 $2 * 90 = $180 Total Revenue increased $30

14 What Happens If --- Graph the following chart Calculate the E d using the bottom two numbers and prices rising

15 Answers - E d Ed = % change in quantity demanded of product X % change in price of product X % Change in quantity = nqd – iqd initial quantity demanded % Change in price = New Price – Initial Price Initial price Ed = (40 – 70) ÷ 70 ($4 - $3.00) ÷ $3.00 Ed = -.4285or 42.85% = 1.28.3333 or 33.33% Drop the negative: E d is > 1 therefore the demand for is elastic

16 E d & TR Test “quiz”

17 Practice Problem See handout

18 Consumer and Producer Surplus Consumer Surplus –Difference between maximum price willing to pay and the actual price producers charge –Think of it as a “willing to pay” curve 18

19 Marginal Benefit & Surplusses Marginal Benefit –What you gain when you get one more unit –Measured by what you are willing to give up –Everyday life we say “getting value for our money” –There is a difference between value and price

20 Value vs. Price Value is what we get Price is what we pay Everyday idea of value is marginal benefit OR The measure of the maximum price what consumers are willing to pay for another unit of a good or service

21 Pizza Sales Per Slice P D 2 1.5 $1.5 20 30 40 10 Consumer Surplus Amount Paid Market Price Consumer surplus from 10 th slice of pizza Willing to pay

22 Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits. 22

23 Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits. 23

24 Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits. 24

25 Voluntary Exchange In the free-market, buyers and sellers voluntarily come together to seek mutual benefits. 25

26 Example of Voluntary Exchange Ex: You want to buy a truck so you go to the local dealership. You are willing to spend up to $20,000 for a new 4x4. The seller is willing to sell this truck for no less than $15,000. After some negotiation you buy the truck for $18,000. Analysis: Buyer’ Maximum- Sellers Minimum- Price- Consumer’s Surplus- Producer’s Surplus- $20,000 $15,000 $18,000 $2,000 $3,000 26

27 Consumer Surplus is the difference between what you are willing to pay and what you actually pay. CS = Buyer’s Maximum – Price Producer’s Surplus is the difference between the price the seller received and how much they were willing to sell it for. PS = Price – Seller’s Minimum Voluntary Exchange Terms 27

28 Pearl Exchange Activity 28

29 Voluntary Exchange Activity 29

30 S P Q D Consumer and Producer’s Surplus $10 8 6 $5 4 2 1 10 2 4 6 8 CS PS 30 Calculate the : 1.Consumer Surplus 2.Producer Surplus 3.Total Surplus

31 Calculating Consumer Surplus In Dollars Max Willing to pay Actual price (E) CalculateCS $9$59 – 5 =$4 $8$58 – 5 =$3 $7$57 – 5 =$2 $6$56 – 5 =$1 $5 5 – 5 =$0 31 Sum = CS = $10

32 Calculating Producer Surplus In Dollars Min Price charged Actual price (E) CalculatePS $2$5 5 – 2 =$3 $5 5 - 3 =$2 $4$5 5 - 4 =$1 $5 5 – 5 =$0 32 Sum = PS = $6

33 Surpluses Could be calculated in Quantity 33

34 Summary Consumption Inefficiency Production Inefficiency

35 Practice Problem Name of ConsumerPrice willing to pay Matt$20 Don$15 Sarah$8 George$12 Ann$7 Q. If dinner sells for $10, what is the value of Dons’ consumer surplus?

36 Practice Problem Name of ConsumerPrice willing to pay Matt$20 Don$15 Sarah$8 George$12 Ann$7 Q. If dinner sells for $10, what is the value of Dons’ consumer surplus? A. Willing to pay is $15. Market price is $10. Willing to pay ($15) – Actual Price ($10) = $5

37 Practice Problem Name of ConsumerPrice willing to pay Matt$20 Don$15 Sarah$8 George$12 Ann$7 Q. If dinner sells for $11, what is the TOTAL value of consumer surplus?

38 Practice Problem Name of ConsumerPrice willing to pay Matt$20 Don$15 Sarah$8 George$12 Ann$7 Q. If dinner sells for $11, what is the TOTAL value of consumer surplus? A.20 – 11 = 9, 15 – 11 = 4, 12 – 11 = 1 9 + 4 + 1 = $14 consumer surplus

39 For a given linier demand curve, the value of consumer surplus does what as market price increases?

40 Decreases as market price increases

41 (1) Price (2) Q A (3) (4) Q B (5) (6) Q C (7) $10100$_____100$_____100$_____ 9111_____130_____110_____ 8125_____170_____120_____ 7143_____220_____130_____ 6167_____280_____140_____ 5200_____350_____150_____ 41 15.A marketing firm has done a study of market demand for DVDs of three different movies. Calculate the total revenue for each movie in columns 3, 5, and 7. Without calculating the price elasticity of demand, indicate whether demand for each movie is elastic, inelastic or unit-elastic. For which movie would a reduction in price produce the greatest increase in revenue?

42 (1) Price (2) Q A (3) (4) Q B (5) (6) Q C (7) $10100$1000100$1000100$1000 91119991301170110990 812510001701360120960 714310012201540130910 616710022801680140840 520010003501750150750 42 Without calculating the price elasticity of demand, indicate whether demand for each movie is elastic, inelastic or unit-elastic. For which movie would a reduction in price produce the greatest increase in revenue? Applying the total revenue test, we see that total revenues remain approximately constant for movie A, meaning that demand is unit-elastic. Total revenues for movie B are increasing as price decreases, meaning that demand for movie B is elastic. Total revenues for movie C are decreasing as price decreases, meaning the demand for movie C is inelastic. [text: E pp. 77-80; MA pp. 77-80; MI pp. 77-80 ]


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