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Adv Research Design & Analysis Lab.  What do you do when you have two articles with the SAME AUTHORS and published in the SAME YEAR?  Give a full APA.

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Presentation on theme: "Adv Research Design & Analysis Lab.  What do you do when you have two articles with the SAME AUTHORS and published in the SAME YEAR?  Give a full APA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adv Research Design & Analysis Lab

2  What do you do when you have two articles with the SAME AUTHORS and published in the SAME YEAR?  Give a full APA citation for the two Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998) articles—write the citations in the correct reference section order  How to you cite these articles in-text? Provide an example of in-text citations at the end of these sentences (use a different article for each sentence—the sentences are in order)  With longer stimulus durations, socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations.  The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral.

3 Amir, N., Foa, E.B., & Coles, M.E. (1998a). Automatic activation and strategic avoidance of threat- relevant information in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(2), doi: / X Amir, N. Foa, E.B., & Coles, M.E. (1998b). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, doi: /S (98)

4  With longer stimulus durations, socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a).  The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).

5  What is another way to write an in-text citation? Cite the second sentence again, but not with an end-of-sentence parenthetical citation.  The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral  Hint: may have to change some of the words in the sentence

6  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998b) presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral.  What KEY WORD is different between the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence and the in-text citation?

7  & = end of sentence, in the parentheses  …interpretations (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).  and = when the citation is IN THE SENTENCE  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998b) presented…  How do you remember this?  Don’t use symbols in your text!  Use words only!

8  What if you paraphrase more than one article in a single sentence?  Cite this sentence (hint: it paraphrases info from both articles)  Socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations, even when presented with both positive and negative social scenarios.

9  Socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations, even when presented with both positive and negative social scenarios (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a; Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).  Semicolon between study authors!

10  Remember, the reference section is  evenly double-spaced throughout  has hanging indents  Is in alphabetical order  Every in-text citation or reference to another article/study MUST have a corresponding, complete reference in the reference section  If you’re referring to another study that the original authors referenced, check up on that article and give a full citation (you may have to look it up yourself to find the doi)

11  If you feel like you’re saying “Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a)” too much, try mixing up your writing with “Amir and colleagues (1998a)”  If there are 6+ authors, even the first in-text citations should be “Amir et al. (2013)” or “Amir and colleagues (2013)”  You do not need to write authors’ first names in your writing  Any other questions?

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13  What if I want to use a quotation from one of these articles?  Form a sentence from this snippet from the Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) study:  “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information.”

14  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information” (p. 285). OR  The authors “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information” (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a, p. 285).

15  Notice where the period is located:  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information” (p. 285).  If you have a parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation (which you always should!), then the period goes AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.

16  Correct  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information” (p. 285).  Incorrect  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information.” (p. 285)

17  Correct  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information” (p. 285), and so they conducted…  Incorrect  Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) “examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat- relevant information,” (p. 285) and so they conducted…

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19  Know the rules of grammar, commas, and other punctuation  Do not use contractions (you’re, don’t, can’t, shouldn’t—they have no place in professional writing! )  Notice run-on sentences  Notice when to use a comma with the word ‘and’ (hint: separate with a comma when there are two independent clauses) Correct: “I went to the store with my friend, and we had a great time.” Incorrect/run-on: “I went to the store with my friend and we had a great time.”

20  Use a comma when you want to connect two independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet)  Use a semicolon when you want to connect two independent clauses without one of those conjunctions  “I went to the store with my friend; we had a great time.”  Use a semicolon when you want to connect two independent clauses with conjunctive adverbs (however, moreover, therefore, consequently, etc.)  “I went to the store with my friend; moreover, we had a great time.”

21  All of this has to do with APA Style!  Look to APA manuals and apastyle.org for guidance on grammar, punctuation, and good writing

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