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By Laura Lamb (2011).  Approximately 1200 CED organizations in Canada (2006)  Federal & Provincial governments have come to recognize importance of.

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Presentation on theme: "By Laura Lamb (2011).  Approximately 1200 CED organizations in Canada (2006)  Federal & Provincial governments have come to recognize importance of."— Presentation transcript:

1 by Laura Lamb (2011)

2  Approximately 1200 CED organizations in Canada (2006)  Federal & Provincial governments have come to recognize importance of CED ◦ Provide varying levels of support

3  Research expected to be useful for public policy makers & CED practitioners  Public policy perspective: ◦ voluntary participation in CED organizations may be viewed as a benefit to society by creating output that would otherwise require paid resources.

4 To analyse volunteer motives for CED from an economic perspective. 4 research questions: 1. What are the determinants of an individual’s decision to voluntarily participate in a CED initiative in Canada? 2. Are the determinants of voluntarily participate in CED unique as compared to those of volunteering in general?

5 3. What are the determinants of the amount of time allocated toward voluntary participation in a CED initiative in Canada? 4. Are the determinants of time allocated toward voluntary participation in CED different from those of volunteering in general?

6  voluntary participation in development and housing organizations including: ◦ organizations for community and neighbourhood, economic development ◦ social development ◦ housing associations ◦ housing assistance ◦ job training programs ◦ vocation counseling and guidance ◦ vocational rehabilitation (International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations)

7  Participation is vital to ensure that initiatives respond to the needs and capacities of the community as expressed by the community itself.  CED organizations play an important role in mobilizing citizen engagement and volunteer contributions in communities (2002 survey)

8  Attaining sufficient levels of participation is often challenging ◦ Marginalized communities suffer from a lack of community cohesiveness, commitment, and transience.  Community organizers play a role in mobilizing people to act for their own interest ◦ Community collective action

9  Rational choice theory ◦ a rational individual will make the decision to participate if the net benefits are positive and will continue to volunteer time until the marginal net benefits equal zero.  Volunteer labour supply theory ◦ explores, identifies, and categorizes the motives behind volunteering.

10  Benefits ◦ Private benefits ◦ Public benefits  Costs ◦ Opportunity costs (time)

11  Consumption benefits ◦ satisfaction derived from the “warm glow” feeling of doing something good, the achievement of a desired degree of social status, satisfaction from the work carried out, or the fulfillment of social or ethical norms  Investment benefits ◦ motivated to gain exchangeable benefits such as increasing job opportunities through the acquisition of skills, experience, and contacts

12  Motivated to increase the supply of the public good, and thereby obtain an altruistic benefit.  motivated by a sense of moral obligation prescribed by her (his) own set of values.  the common economic view of pure altruism is that it either does not exist at all or at best is very rare

13  age  education  Income  the presence of children  immigrant status  religious activity  donation activity  social capital

14 P ced = F (A, C, I, T, S) P: participation A: altruistic benefits C: consumption benefits I: investment benefits T: time costs of participation S: socio-economic factors

15 H ced = F (A, C, I, T, S) H: # hours of participation

16  Private Benefits ◦ Investment benefit  Student status  Self-employment status  Company policy to encourage volunteering ◦ Consumption benefit  Asked to volunteer

17  Public Benefits ◦ Altruism /consumption  Age 55 +  Informal volunteering

18  Time cost variables ◦ Presence of children ◦ # hours of paid employment

19 Table 3 Frequency and percentage distribution of voluntary participation in community economic development according to their socioeconomic characteristics (n=1302) Socioeconomic characteristics Frequency (%) Age Total100.0 Gender Female Male Total100.0 Education Maximum high school diploma At least some post-secondary Total100.0 Household Income <$40, $40,000-$100, $100, Total100.0 Religious attendance At least weekly Less than weekly/never Total100.0 Time in community Less than 5 years ≥5 years Total100.0 Immigrant status Canadian born Immigrant Total100.0 Charitable donations Participant Non-participant645.0 Total100.0 Source: 2004 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP)

20  Children (+)  Hours worked (-)  Age (+)  Donations (+)  Consumption benefit: ◦ asked (+) ◦ retired (+)  Altruistic benefit: ◦ informal volunteering (+)  Investment benefit: ◦ student (+) ◦ employer policy (+) ◦ Self-employed (+) Significant variables!

21  Hours worked (-)  Post-sec. educ (-)  Consumption benefit: ◦ asked (+)  Immigrant status Significant variables!

22  Results support economic theory ◦ Likelihood of participation is positively affected by consumption & investment benefits, and may be positively affected by altruistic benefits. ◦ Likelihood of participation is negatively affected by the number of hours spend working for pay. ◦ Likelihood of participating is positively affected by children, an increase in age, & charitable giving.

23  Results show some support for economic theory ◦ The likelihood of devoting additional hours to CED is positively affected by consumption benefits. ◦ The likelihood of devoting additional hours to CED is negatively affected by the number of hours spent working for pay.

24  Different determinants for CED & general volunteering: participation model & hours devoted

25  Government might develop programs for the purpose of increasing private & public benefits to stimulate more participation in CED activities.  Government policy to improve success rate of CED projects  Tax incentive for volunteer participation.

26  Inform strategies to increase participation ◦ Increase private benefits  Providing recognition for contributions  Match volunteer to task providing private benefit  Consumption benefit  Investment benefit

27  Better data ◦ CED participation ◦ Measurement of altruistic benefit & consumption benefit  Additional variables ◦ leadership ◦ Probability of success of participation


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