2 Controlling the Behavior of Others One of the key differences between realists and idealists is the way they view human natureIdealists tend to believe that humans are basically good and care for othersConsequently, governments and their leaders should be judged by these idealsRealists tend to believe that human beings care only about maximizing their own self-interests and they expect no more from their leaders
3 Controlling the Behavior of Others The study of how governments need to control indidividuals is a realist approachWhen examining politics, this perspective asks:“Who benefits?”“How do they benefit?”The answers to these two questions will usually provide a solid first step toward unraveling the political puzzleOften, the best line is:“Show me the power.”
4 Controlling the Behavior of Others Regardless of the type of government they head, it can be argued that all leaders try to maximize their self-interestsWhat individual benefits might leaders pursue?PowerWealthPrestigeThe goals might be selfish or altruistic but the concept of leadership benefits is a powerful explanatory tool
5 Leadership BenefitsThe greater the benefits to be gained from the leadership position,the more willing people are to take risks to take over a leadership position,and the greater lengths leaders will go to to hold on to it
6 The PanopticonOne of the fundamental mechanisms leaders use to control large populations is based on the concept of the panopticonThis is based on an 18th c. prison design by Jeremy BenthamThe prisoners could be watched at any time but they never know when they are being watched
7 The PanopticonMichel Foucault noted that the panoptic control of a few guards over hundreds of prisoners is similar to how governments control large populations
8 The Panopticon Think of they way traffic laws are enforced The vast majority of times there are no police to be seenHowever, there always could be a police officer around any bend in the roadThrough self-policing, a few hundred policemen can control thousands of driversLeaders use this same concept to prevent revolt and maintain control
9 The PanopticonIs this something with which we need to be concerned about in a democracy?What about public surveillance cameras in public places and other technologies such as drones?
10 The PanopticonDoes this bring the “gaze of the superior” into the daily lives of the populace?Why would citizens acquiesce?Could this acquiescence be constructed?
11 The Panoptic GazeFoucault used the Panoptican as a metaphor for the oppressive power of late capitalismDomination and Control without barsMediated tyranny of the majorityThe only way to avoid punishment is to police your own actions and serve as your own guard
12 Collective Action, Revolution, and the Use of Force Government is essentially an institutionalized mechanism for collective actionRevolutions are collective actions with the aim of tearing down and replacing the current government
13 Collective Action, Revolution, and the Use of Force Those at the top of the existing social hierarchies are driven by self-interest to actively oppose any collective effort to overthrow the system.They will employ a variety of techniques to prevent revolutionary groups from forming
14 AtomizationWhen people are isolated they are kept from forming a group that could threaten a leader’s hold on powerAt the most extreme, you would want to prevent anyone from forming any kind of personal bondThe two most important mechanisms leaders use to accomplish this are:peer policingpreference falsification
15 Atomization: Peer Policing Peer policing is having people police each otherLeaders need to encourage citizens to engage in peer policing against potential revolutionariesLeaders might make it a crime to not report someone else’s efforts to form a revolutionary groupThis works particularly well if people believe that government agents will test individuals’ willingness to turn in others
16 Atomization : Peer Policing Governments and their leaders can handle individual isolated revolutionary actions, but mass action may overwhelm the government’s policing and enforcement mechanismsPeer policing happens in democracies as well as in totalitarian states
17 Atomization: Preference Falsification Preference falsification is hiding they way you truly feel while publicly expressing what those in power want to hear from youAs long as people’s true feelings are hidden, how can potential revolutionaries even know if there are others who share their view?
18 Limits on Forceful Control The level of force leaders must use to maintain control is related to the level of dissatisfactionWhen dissatisfaction is low, less force is necessaryWhen dissatisfaction with unresolved problems becomes high enough, desperation may overcome fear and force may no longer be enoughWhen pushed too far, people will stand up to a bully
19 Huxley v. OrwellCheck out this comic adaptation of the introduction to Neil Postman’s Amusing Ourselves to DeathCan you think of contemporary examples of both a Huxleyan and an Orwellian world?With which should we be more concerned?How about examples from The Cuckoo’s Nest?
21 Legitimacy and Government Control Instead of relying on force, threats, and punishments, leaders can maintain control by pursuing legitimacyLegitimacy is the voluntary acceptance of governmentPursuing a path of legitimacy can be an expensive long-term propositionIt is generally far cheaper in the short-term to use force
22 Legitimacy and Government Control There are many ways that governments can achieve or lose legitimacystay in power a long time,get the blessing of a legitimate past leader,convince people that God sent the leaders to rulewin popular electionsElectoral democracies institutionalize revolt by giving citizens the power to keep or replace the government
23 Legitimacy and Conflict Within Groups After World War I, researchers believed that conflict was something horrible, and that conflict should be eradicatedGeorg Simmel and later Lewis Coser pointed out that the complete elimination of conflicts could be equally bad because conflict serves constructive functions
24 Legitimacy and Conflict Within Groups When engaged in a conflict with another group, self-identification with the group increases and support for the leadership increasesIntra-group conflict (conflict within the group) can serve as a safety valve for letting off frustration
25 Cross-cutting Cleavages If there are a variety of conflicts, divisions over them do not always coincidePeople who disagree on one issue may agree on othersThis prevents society from dividing sharply over a single issuePeople will be less hostile toward others on one issue if they agree on others
26 Conflict as a Source of Legitimacy Such conflicts facilitate the resolution of the underlying cause of disagreement; the resolution of small issues can keep them from growing into large onesThey also provide a foundation for developing compromisesResolving conflict within the group enhances the public’s willingness to voluntarily accept the group and its structuresThis enhances the legitimacy of the group and its leaders
27 TotalitarianismTotalitarianism – Ideology that espouses the complete political, economic, and social control of people and institutions by a dictatorial, single-party regime.Have we always had Totalitarianism?No, this a 20th Century phenomenon; why?Technology creates the communication and transportation necessary to manage all aspects of lifeAlso, growth of ideology as a means of organizing a society
28 Popular Totalitarianism? Why would people allow totalitarianism?Their ideological justification comes from the state acting on behalf of the peopleOrganize the economy so that all have their needs metTotalitarian regimes are generally popular (at least at the beginning)
29 Economic FreedomWhy might a government want to limit economic freedoms?Prevent ExploitationHow might this affect the economy of a totalitarian regime?Command Economies are not very efficientIf limit economic freedoms, must limit political freedoms as well (Maoist China)However, can limit political freedom without limiting economic freedom (China today)
30 Social FreedomsWhat kinds of social freedoms might be limited in a totalitarian government?enjoy the privacy of your homepractice the religion of your choicebelieving what you wishWhy might a government want to limit these freedoms?How do they threaten the government’s ability to rule?
31 Limited GovernmentYou are watching television when an "alien" form appears on the screen. The alien states that all of earth and its inhabitants are now under the control of aliens. The alien informs you that all forms of communication have been taken over.The alien continues with this statement: "Americans believe rights are important. The United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights guarantee many rights. As aliens, we are going to take away all of your rights except for one."
32 Which Right Will You Keep? Petition the GovernmentHave a LawyerFreedom of SpeechFreedom of ReligionPeaceably AssembleFreedom of the PressBear ArmsTrial By JuryA Speedy and Public TrialFreedom from Unreasonable Searches and Seizures