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Skeletal and Muscle Systems Chapter 5
Skeletal System Composed of bone and cartilage
Periosteum: Connective tissue that covers the bone’s surface
Joint: Union of two bones
Ligaments, Tendons, and a tough fibrous capsule provide stability to the joint
Skeleton Stores: Minerals (calcium and phosphorus Manufactures blood cells Stores fat in limb bones (in adults)
Long bones: found in limbs Support body weight Act as levers of propulsion
Short: found in knee and hock Aid in shock of impact
Flat: ribs, scapula, some in skull Encloses vital organs
Irregular bones: unpaired bones Vertebrae and some in skull
Bony growths (splints, spavins, and ringbone) are a result of injury to the periosteum Periosteum nourishes the bone through blood vessels (like antlers)
Cartilage: Covers joints Diminishes effect of concussion and provide a smooth joint surface to minimize frictional resistance to movement
Axial Skeleton: skull, spine, ribs, breastbone, pelvis, tail Appendicular Skeleton: forelegs and hindlegs
Muscle system Provides movement internally and externally Red flesh or lean meat 50% of the body weight
3 types of muscles: Smooth- involuntary Cardiac – involuntary striated Striated or Skeletal
Smooth Muscles: 1.Digestive system 2.Uterus of females
Peristalsis: Wavelike contractions of digestive system Can contract for hours without getting fatigued
Cardiac Muscle: Only in the heart Contraction requires no nerve stimulus Split-second intervals of rest
Striated or Skeletal Muscle Attached to bony levers Move the body voluntarily with control of the will
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