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1-1 Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage Chapter 7 Training McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights.

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Presentation on theme: "1-1 Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage Chapter 7 Training McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 1-1 Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage Chapter 7 Training McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved.

2 7-2 Designing Effective Training Activities 1. Needs Assessment Organizational Analysis Person Analysis Task Analysis 2. Ensuring Employees’ readiness for Training Attitudes and Motivation Basic Skills 3. Creating a Learning Environment Identification of learning objectives and training outcomes Meaningful material Practice Feedback Observation of others Administering and coordinating program The Training Process

3 7-3 Designing Effective Training Activities (cont.) 4. Ensuring Transfer of Training Self-management strategies Peer and manager support 5. Selecting Training Methods Presentational Methods Hands-on Methods Group Methods 6. Evaluating Training Programs Identification of training outcomes and evaluation design. Cost-benefit analysis The Training Process

4 7-4 Selecting Training Methods Presentation Methods –Instructor-led classroom instruction –Distance learning –Audiovisual techniques –Mobile technologies Hands-on Methods –On-the-job training –Self-directed learning –Simulations –Business games and case studies –Behavior modeling –Interactive video –E-learning

5 7-5 Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs OUTCOME Cognitive Outcomes Skill-based Outcomes Affective Outcomes Results Return on Investment WHAT IS MEASURED Acquisition of Knowledge Behavior Skills Motivation Reaction to Program Attitudes Company Payoff Economic value of Training HOW MEASURED Pencil and paper tests Work sample Observation Work sample Ratings Interviews Focus groups Attitude surveys Observation Data from information system or performance records Identification and comparison of costs and benefits of the program

6 7-6 A Cautionary Note re: Diversity Training… Recent research suggests that having a diverse workforce does little to improve a Co’s business performance or bottom line Diversity education programs have little impact on performance –Don’t give people skills needed –Need training to deal with group process issues, communicating and problem-solving in diverse teams Hard metrics for measuring performance results or return on diversity spending are in very short supply –Generally more success in dealing with gender issues than racial/ethnic issues »Source: Workforce, April 2003

7 7-7 Women Are Moving into Fields Previously the Province of Men –Women Are Moving into Fields Previously the Province of Men –

8 7-8

9 7-9

10 7-10 The Opt-Out Revolution Between one-quarter and one-third of professional women are out of work force –Number of children being cared for by stay-at-home moms has increased by nearly 13% in less than a decade Percentage of new mothers who go back to work fell to 55% in 2000, from 59% in 1998 –Two-thirds of mothers work fewer than 40 hrs/wk Only 5% work 50+ hrs –White male MBAs: 95% working full-time; white female MBAs: 67% (African-American female MBAs more similar to white men than women)

11 7-11 Redesigning Organizations Significant organizational challenge in redesigning organizations to take advantage of mothers ready to re-enter work force –Attract, retain, motivate, plus now re-integrate? –Many professional women who quit their jobs to raise children now trying to go back – and they’re finding it harder than they ever imagined Two-thirds of highly-educated women who left jobs mainly for family reasons want to return to work Deloitte & Touche “Personal Pursuits” program, which allows ees to take unpaid leave for as long as five years –Training sessions for those on leave, mentors to stay in touch “There’s a part of every woman who has had what it takes to succeed on Wall Street that yearns for that type of overachieving applause that you got, and that motherhood does not allow you to have. There’s just no applause. And I miss that.” »Source: Wall Street Journal, 5/6/04

12 7-12 Redesigning Organizations 37% of women surveyed in study in Harvard Business Review voluntarily left work at some point in their careers – 43% of those w/ children – average break lasted ~2 years –In contrast, only 24% of men took time off from careers (w/ no difference btwn fathers and non- fathers) – average break lasted ~1 year –44% of women cited family responsibilities as reason for leaving, cf. 12% of men Among men, primary reason was career enhancement –In this study, 93% of women who took time off from work wanted to return to careers –Reductions in earnings potential due to exit and re- entry are a primary reason for earnings gap btwn men and women of comparable education increasing during child-bearing and –rearing years »Source: Business Week, 3/28/05

13 7-13 Redesigning Organizations Some evidence of growing dissatisfaction on part of men w/ price required to advance in corporate America, desire for same flexibility and balance that women want –Belkin suggests that instead of women being forced to act like men, men are being freed to act like women Number of married men who are full-time caregivers to their children has increased 18% (to what and from when?) –Working men born between 1965 and 1979 now spend ~3.5 hrs/day with their children – same amount as working women Among all working men, ~2.7 hrs, up from 1.8 hrs in % of men report they would take a pay cut to spend more time at home w/ family, almost half would turn down promotion if it meant less family time –Biggest change is new unwillingness to relocate »(Business Week, 11/8/04) Family-friendly organization? –Better opportunities to work flexible hours, share jobs, not relocate NPR: “Women’s Perks Can Bring New Problems”“Women’s Perks Can Bring New Problems”

14 Get a Life! Men and women far more alike in desires than had been assumed 84% of senior Fortune 500 male execs say they’d like job options that let them realize professional aspirations while having more time for things outside work –55% say they’re willing to sacrifice income –80-hr week had become norm in consulting, law, investment banking Jeff Immelt, GE CEO, boasts of working 100 hrs/wk for 25 years “Businesses need to be 24/7 – individuals don’t” (Anne Mulcahy, CEO Xerox) Nearly half believe that for exec to bring this up w/ boss will hurt career –The younger the exec is, the more likely to care about this »Fortune, 11/28/05

15 7-15 Law School: Out of the Combat Zone One group of female legal scholars vehemently opposed to Socratic Method –Observed that women tend to be more reflective and take longer to formulate answers in class –Men often better at giving quick, clear-cut answers under the pressure Socratic Method creates Women law school graduates more than twice as likely to choose public-interest jobs (although very small percentage of both do so) »Source: New York Times, 11/6/04


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