Presentation on theme: "What are the key issues and events that led to the Civil War? Day 1 Slavery States’ Rights Nullification Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Georgia."— Presentation transcript:
What are the key issues and events that led to the Civil War? Day 1 Slavery States’ Rights Nullification Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Georgia Platform Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott Case Election of 1860 Debate over the Secession in Georgia Role of Alexander Stephens
Differences As the United States grew, clear differences showed up between the NORTH and the SOUTH. ◊Political ◊Cultural ◊Economic ◊Social
Agriculture Fertile Soil Warmer Climate Plantations Farms Rural Self Sufficient Expect Little Government Help SOUTH
NORTH Industry Rocky Soil Colder Climate Factories Cities Urban Interdependent Expect More Government Help
Resources of the North & South
POPULATION (22,300,000) 5,100,000 Non-Slaves 4,000,000 Slaves
Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860
Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
Causes of Civil War (8 Ss) States’ Rights Structure (Classes) Solvency (Ability to Pay Debt) Style Slavery Sectionalism Selection of Lincoln Secession
Causes of the Civil War States’ Rights Structure (Classes) Solvency (Ability to Pay Debt) Style (Urban vs. Rural) Slavery Sectionalism Selection of Lincoln Secession
SOUTH Believed that states had the right to rule themselves NORTH Believed in a strong national government
SOUTH Government created by the states. States have the right to reject laws that would hurt them. Since states voluntarily joined the Union, they could voluntarily leave –secede. NORTH Government created by the people. Only the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional. Only the people of the US could dissolve the Union. Attempting to destroy the Union was treason.
Even though the United States had been established decades earlier, many people still felt that the states should have FINAL AUTHORITY, not the federal government. vs.
FARMERS WITH SLAVES FREE BLACKS SLAVES
SOUTH Based on agriculture, including cotton, tobacco, and rice. Cotton was shipped north to make cloth and thread. NORTH Based on factories, mining, banks, stores, and railroads.
Tariffs Cost = $50 Made in Northern United States Made in Great Britain Cost = $70 +$20 Import Tax
Northerners wanted to sell their goods in the South, but it was often cheaper for Southerners to buy things from Europe. To help Northern industries, President Andrew Jackson put a tariff (taxes on imports) on imported goods in 1828. This made European goods very expensive, so Southerners would have to buy from Northern States.
South Favored low tariffs because they bought so many goods from other countries. North Favored high tariffs on goods from other countries so goods manufactured in North cost less and would outsell foreign goods.
Nullification Controversy Nullify = to declare invalid. Many people, including Georgians, wanted to NULLIFY the federal tariff, saying that it was not valid in their state.
South Carolina Threatens to Secede! Because a new tariff was too high. Began to arm themselves and hold practice drills.
Compromise Tariff Law Reduced Tariff over a 10 year period. Please South Carolinians. Protests Ended.
Panic of 1857 Depression hit the country Before this time, Northern Industrialists built their factories with borrowed money. Nearly 5,000 went bankrupt. Factory owners asked Congress to pass higher tariffs to stop British goods from being sold in the United States. Debates followed…
South RURAL Had few large cities other than Richmond, Charleston, Savannah, Augusta. North URBAN Had a number of large cities offering museums, opera, lectures, theaters.
South No formal educational system in the South. Private tutors or school abroad were options for upper class. Some community schools but teachers were not usually trained. Some state- chartered universities such as UGA. North Many private schools, including church- sponsored schools, accepted both boys and girls. Some private schools were open to both. Private universities such as Brown, Harvard, and Yale were opening.