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Lecture 12 Applied Ethics (II) Sex and Porn. 1]Definition of Sexuality 2]Forms of Evaluation of Sex {i}Liberal Ethics {ii}Natural Law {iii}Consent Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 12 Applied Ethics (II) Sex and Porn. 1]Definition of Sexuality 2]Forms of Evaluation of Sex {i}Liberal Ethics {ii}Natural Law {iii}Consent Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 12 Applied Ethics (II) Sex and Porn

2 1]Definition of Sexuality 2]Forms of Evaluation of Sex {i}Liberal Ethics {ii}Natural Law {iii}Consent Ethics {iv}Beyond Consent Ethics 3]Pornography and Obscenity [1]Pornography is good [2]Pornography is bad {i}Offence to Others {ii}Legal Moralism 4]Conclusion

3 As of April 1, 1990, the population of the United States was 248,709,873. That same year, over 300,000,000 X-rated videos were distributed in our neighborhoods. Since then. Sales and rentals of adult videos have risen 75 percent. Pornography is a $13 billion industry – more than the combined annual revenues of the Coca-Cola and McDonnell Douglas Corporations.

4 Topics : procreation, contraception, celibacy, marriage, adultery, casual sex, flirting, prostitution, homosexuality, masturbation, seduction, rape, sexual harassment, sadomasochism, pornography, bestiality, and pedophilia … etc.

5 [ 1 ] Definition : Sexuality an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual or affectional attraction to another person distinguished from other components of sexuality including biological sex, gender identity (the psychological sense of being male or female) and the social gender role (adherence to cultural norms for feminine and masculine behavior) exists along a continuum that ranges from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior because it refers to feelings and self- concept. Persons may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors

6 [ 2 ] Forms of Moral Evaluation of Sex whether a sexual act--either a particular occurrence of a sexual act (the act we are doing or want to do right now) or a type of sexual act (say, all instances of homosexual fellatio)--is morally good or morally bad. sexual activity can be nonmorally good if it provides for us what we expect sexual activity to provide, which is usually sexual pleasure, and this fact has no necessary moral implications (wrong for lots of different reasons having nothing to do with the type of sexual act that it is). whether the act or type is natural or unnatural (that is, perverted).

7 { i } Liberal Ethics emphasizes the values of autonomous choice, self-determination, and pleasure in arriving at moral judgments about sexual behavior morally wrong sexual act is rape because of using threats to coerce anything done voluntarily between two or more people is generally morally permissible nothing morally wrong or nonmorally bad about either masturbation or homosexual sexual activity

8 { ii } Natural Law there are morally worthless sexual acts in which “one's body is treated as instrumental for the securing of the experiential satisfaction of the conscious self” all extramarital sexual gratification leads to the person undergoing "disintegration" only in married mode, heterosexual coitus do the persons’ “reproductive organs... make them a biological... unit” therefore, marriage means unity

9 { iii } Consent Ethics no harm done to third parties to be concerned about, the fact that two people engage in a sexual act voluntarily, with their own free and informed consent even if I do not approve of his or her particular choice of ends, at least I show respect for his or her ends- making capability no moral objection in principle to casual sexual activity, to sexual activity with strangers, or to promiscuity, as long as the persons involved in the activity genuinely agree to engage in their chosen sexual activities but … how specific must consent be? but … consent not always needed cos’ we negotiate our way through most of life with schemes of threats and offers

10 { iv } Beyond Consent Ethics consent is insufficient only in a committed relationship (i.e. the presence of some other ingredients like love, marriage, devotion, etc.) is sexual activity between two people morally permissible Sexuality should yield a virtuous sexual act; therefore no casual sex is allowed

11 [ 3 ] Pornography and Obscenity Pornography is broadly defined as any text or image (still or moving) explicitly portraying sexual acts. Pornography has no legal meaning; what is forbidden as a crime is not pornography but obscenity which is defined in law as prurient, patently offensive expression, lacking serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.

12 There is really no such thing as pornography. There are only explicit descriptions and depictions of sex. Some of these are scientific, literary or artistic, and some are not. "Pornography" is a pejorative term we use to single out some category: for some, "pornography" means the most salacious and immoral material; for others it may mean the most arousing and enjoyable.

13 [ a ] Pornography is good Pornography is good because: It provides women with sexual information. It strips away the real world confusion about sex. It breaks cultural and political stereotypes, allowing women to interpret sex for themselves. It is the great leveler of shame. It is sex therapy.

14 [ b ] Pornography is bad Pornography is bad because: It provides misleading sexual information. It arouses sexual fantasy that causes crime. It degrades girls, women and female. It is violence and oppression. It is harmful to teenagers It is absolutely bad by religious command.

15 { i } Offence-to-Others Offensive behavior is such in virtue of its capacity to induce in others any of a large miscellany of mental states that have little in common except that they are unpleasant, uncomfortable, or disliked. These states do not necessarily hurt, although offense and hurts are in themselves harms, harms of a relatively trivial kind. Philosophers have suggested that we may want to preserve some sphere of personal activity where the preferences of others are irrelevant. If A should be so hypersensitive as to feel pain because of the color of B's walls, we may want to tell A that such matters are none of his business. Obscene literature and pornographic displays are different as they are materials deliberately published for the eyes of others. Materials must be offensive by prevailing community standards, involving a careful calculation of interpersonal objective senses that are public and well known; otherwise, any intervention may incur risks that socially valuable materials will be repressed.

16 At the very least, the first test --- the standard of universality --- for using offense principle requires that the prohibited conduct or material be of the sort apt to offend almost everybody, and not just some special interest groups, especially those offensive in inappropriate circumstances. But government coercion against offense should be subject to one more test --- the standard of reasonable avoidability. No one has a right to protection from the government against offensive experiences if he can effectively avoid those experiences with no unreasonable effort or inconvenience. Note that even when offense principle can be used to justify government intervention, the form of intervention seems desirably to be limited, i.e. unjustified to suppress in toto the offensive conduct or materials, unless on that ground for the protection of children.

17 { ii } Hard Case for Legal Moralism Problem arises when there are forms of immorality that do not necessarily cause harm, i.e. one of the grounds for government intervention is simply the enforcement of morality (or "legal moralism"). Cases include adultery, fornication, sodomy, incest, prostitution, or non-sexual activities like cruelty to animals. These are actually morals offenses committed by consenting adults in private. Hence "crime without victims". But Patrick Delvin, the major proponent of this principle, argues that it is the prevention of harm, not merely to individuals, but also (and primarily) to society itself. The necessary condition for the very existence of a community is a shared moral code, functioning as invisible bonds tying individuals together in an orderly society.

18 Just as law and order through government are necessary to a stable society, so moral conformity is essential to a society's very continuation. Individual liberties are said to be better protectable when, but only when, they do not erode those moral standards essential to the life of society. The extreme, pure form of legal moralism argues that enforcement of morality is not justified as a means to some further ends such as the preservation of social cohesiveness, but are ends in themselves. The world as a whole would be a better place without morally ugly conduct, and the threat of punishment deters such conduct. If the fear of punishment is to keep people from breaking the basic moral code in the privacy of their own rooms, then morality shall have to be enforced with a fearsome efficiency that shows no respect for individual privacy. If private immoralities are to be deterred by threat of punishment, the government must be able to look into the hidden chambers and locked rooms of anyone's private domicile.

19 [ 4 ] Conclusion Feminists: men + pornography = rape ? _the_big_deal.htm Pornopatrons: porn = freedom of speech ? ms.html

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