Presentation on theme: "Operating Systems, fall 2002 SCHEDULING in Linux Lior Amar, David Breitgand (recitation) www.cs.huji.ac.il/~os."— Presentation transcript:
Operating Systems, fall 2002 SCHEDULING in Linux Lior Amar, David Breitgand (recitation)
Scheduling in Unix The scheduling algorithm must fulfill several conflicting objectives: –fast process response time; –good throughput for background jobs; –avoidance of process starvation; –Preferential treatment of low- and high-priority processes. The set of rules used to determine when and how selecting a new process to run is called scheduling policy.
Linux Unix clone for PC by Tornvald Linus; –Originally for x386 family; Scheduling is based on the time-sharing: –Several processes are allowed to run "concurrently“; –Which means that the CPU time is roughly divided into "slices“, one for each runnable process; –If a currently running process is not terminated when its time slice (quantum) expires, a process switch may take place; –Time-sharing relies on timer interrupts and is transparent to processes; –No additional code needs to be inserted in the programs in order to ensure CPU time-sharing. –CPU sharing policies can be controlled to a certain extent.
Process Classification I/O-bound: make heavy use of I/O devices and spend much time waiting for I/O operations to complete. CPU-bound: number-crunching applications that require a lot of CPU time.
Alternative Process Classification Interactive processes : interact constantly with their users; spend a lot of time waiting for key presses and mouse operations; when input is received, the process must be woken up quickly, or the user will find the system to be unresponsive; typically, the average delay must fall between 50 and 150 ms. the variance of such delay must also be bounded, or the user will find the system to be erratic; typical interactive programs are command shells, text editors, and graphical applications.
Alternative Process Classification Batch processes : Do not need user interaction; Often run in the background; Do not need to be very responsive; Typical batch programs data-mining engines, file transfers, compilers Real-time processes: Have very strong scheduling requirements; Should have a short response time and a minimum variance; Often require a guaranteed sequence of execution; Often require a guaranteed timing (deadlines).
Real Time Processes Hard real time processes: –Nuclear power plant control; –Airplane control. Soft real time processes: –Video/audio streaming; –On-line gaming/conferencing.
Classifications are largely independent Batch programs may be I/O bound and CPU bound Real Time programs maybe I/O bound and CPU bound. Can interactive programs be CPU bound?
…and in Linux Soft real-time processes are explicitly recognized: –There are two types of user processes in Linux: real time, and conventional. No way explicitly to distinguish among conventional batch and interactive processes: –Linux (as all UNIXs) prefers I/O processes –Is this always OK?
Linux Scheduling Policy Based on priorities; Priority is a measure of worthiness of choosing a certain process to run among the processes being ready to run; In Linux there are two types of priorities: –Static : stay fixed throughout the process life for soft real time processes –Dynamic : for conventional processes (adjusted by the scheduler based on process history)
Why not Hard Real Time? Two reasons: –Linux kernel is non-preemptive (as in classic Unix), you will appreciate why in this week lecture. –Linux user-level process is preemptive.
Preempted vs Suspended Preempted process is logically in the READY state, it just does not use CPU Suspended process waits for some event completion (e.g., I/O completion, timer event, other event – can you give an example?), thus it is not runnable.
Quantum Time sharing is possible since each process occupies CPU for a finite time slice aka quantum; How long should it be? –If too long - FCFS –If too short – switching overhead is too high –Question: if switching takes up 10 ms, and quantum is 10 ms, what is switching overhead? Statement: long quantum always degrades response time of interactive applications. –Is this false or true?
Quantum (II) The statement from the previous slide is FALSE in general; In particular, this is not true in Linux; This actually depends on whether the scheduler gives higher priority to the I/O bound process (interactive programs are always I/O bound); In Linux previously suspended I/O process will very quickly preempt currently running CPU-bound process upon wakeup when SUSPENDED ->READY state transition takes place
Quantum (III) However, in some cases when quantum is too long responsiveness may be degraded Example: –Two commands are invoked simultaneously by two users. One is CPU bound, another one is interactive –Shells of users fork two process. If initially these two have the same dynamic priority, and the CPU bound is selected first, then the I/O bound suffers. The rule of thumb adopted by Linux is: choose quantum duration as long as possible, while keeping good system response time. The actual value is 210 ms.
Linux Scheduling Algorithm Linux uses a variant of multilevel queue with feedback; CPU time is divided into epochs; –In a single epoch, every process has a specified quantum whose duration is computed when the epoch begins; Different processes may have different quanta; Quantum value is the maximum CPU time portion assigned to the process in that epoch; Process is preempted when: –it finishes up its quantum; –a previously suspended process with higher priority is awaken; –process voluntarily relinquish CPU either by calling a blocking system call, or by calling sched_yeild() syscall; –process voluntarily decreases/increases its priority through calling setpriority() –Real time process is ready to run.
Linux Scheduling Algorithm (continued) Priority of a conventional process in Linux equals unused time from the process’s quantum; –The more time left, the higher priority; Static priorities: 1-99 are never changed by the scheduler Different priority queues can be handled through two policies: FCFS and RR. An epoch terminates when all runnable processes exhaust their quantum. When a new epoch begin each runnable process is assigned a new quantum: base priority + time left from the last epoch
More on priorities (I) When a process forks a child process the priority for the child is set as follows: current->counter >>= 1; //counter counts ticks left p->counter = current->counter; What is the effect of this? Why this is needed? In PC one clock tick usually happens every 0.01 sec. Base quantum (=base priority) is 20 ticks (defined in /usr/include/sched.h)
More on Priorities (II) When a new epoch begins every process (i.e., also the suspended ones) obtain new priorities: p->priority += p->counter >> 1; Thus suspended processes (I/O bound) increase their priority; What is the maximum priority a process may get ever? Why is it good to recalculate all priorities once per epoch, and not all the time?
Let’s check ourselves What type of processes will be favored by Linux scheduler? Can starvation occur if only conventional processes execute? Can starvation occur if both real time and conventional processes execute? Can starvation occur if only real time processes execute? Why relatively long quantum does not hurt interactive processes in Linux? Can a single epoch be infinite?
System CallDescription nice( ) Change the priority of a conventional process. getpriority( ) Get the maximum priority of a group of conventional processes. setpriority( ) Set the priority of a group of conventional processes. sched_getscheduler( ) Get the scheduling policy of a process. sched_setscheduler( ) Set the scheduling policy and priority of a process. sched_getparam( ) Get the scheduling priority of a process. sched_setparam( ) Set the priority of a process. sched_yield( ) Relinquish the processor voluntarily without blocking. sched_get_ priority_min( ) Get the minimum priority value for a policy. sched_get_ priority_max( ) Get the maximum priority value for a policy. sched_rr_get_interval( ) Get the time quantum value for the Round Robin policy.