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Politics, Power, and Violence Part III. Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order: Political organization always includes means of maintaining.

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Presentation on theme: "Politics, Power, and Violence Part III. Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order: Political organization always includes means of maintaining."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics, Power, and Violence Part III

2 Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order: Political organization always includes means of maintaining order that ensure people behave in acceptable ways and define what action will be taken when they do not. Political organization always includes means of maintaining order that ensure people behave in acceptable ways and define what action will be taken when they do not. In chiefdoms and states, some sort of authority has the power to regulate the affairs of society. In chiefdoms and states, some sort of authority has the power to regulate the affairs of society. In bands and tribes, however, people behave generally as they are expected to, without the direct intervention of any centralized political authority. In bands and tribes, however, people behave generally as they are expected to, without the direct intervention of any centralized political authority.

3 Wape of Papua New Guinea Among the Wape people of Papua New Guinea, they believe that spirits of deceased ancestors roam lineage lands, protecting them from trespassers and helping their hunting descendants by driving game their way Among the Wape people of Papua New Guinea, they believe that spirits of deceased ancestors roam lineage lands, protecting them from trespassers and helping their hunting descendants by driving game their way –For the Wape, successful hunting depends upon avoiding quarrels and maintaining tranquility within the community so as not to antagonize anybody’s deceased ancestor

4 Internalized Controls: The Wape concern about ancestral spirits is a good example of internalized, or cultural, controls The Wape concern about ancestral spirits is a good example of internalized, or cultural, controls – –Cultural controls: control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals. – –Social control: external control through open coercion.

5 Internalized Controls Cultural controls are embedded in our consciousness and may rely on deterrents such as fear of supernatural punishment, ancestral spirits sabotaging the hunting for example, and magical retaliation. Cultural controls are embedded in our consciousness and may rely on deterrents such as fear of supernatural punishment, ancestral spirits sabotaging the hunting for example, and magical retaliation. Cultural controls can also be framed in positive terms, with customary ways and means that encourage individual sacrifice for the common good. Cultural controls can also be framed in positive terms, with customary ways and means that encourage individual sacrifice for the common good.

6 Externalized Controls Sanction: an externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms. Sanction: an externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms. –These are designed to encourage conformity to social norms. For sanctions to be effective, they cannot be arbitrary. For sanctions to be effective, they cannot be arbitrary. –They bust be applied consistently They must be generally known among members of the society They must be generally known among members of the society

7 Externalized Controls Positive sanctions consist of incentives to conformity such as awards, titles, and recognition by one’s neighbors. Positive sanctions consist of incentives to conformity such as awards, titles, and recognition by one’s neighbors. Negative sanctions consist of threats such as imprisonment, fines, corporal punishment, or ostracism from the community for violation of social norms. Negative sanctions consist of threats such as imprisonment, fines, corporal punishment, or ostracism from the community for violation of social norms. Sanctions may also be categorized as either formal or informal, depending on whether or not a legal statute is involved. Sanctions may also be categorized as either formal or informal, depending on whether or not a legal statute is involved.

8 Social Control through Witchcraft: In societies with or without centralized political systems, witchcraft sometimes functions as an agent of social control and involves both internal and external controls. In societies with or without centralized political systems, witchcraft sometimes functions as an agent of social control and involves both internal and external controls. –An individual will think twice before offending a neighbor if convinced that the neighbor could retaliate by resorting to black magic. –Similarly, individuals may not wish to be accused of practicing witchcraft, and so they behave with greater circumspection.

9 Song Duels Having a song duel is the traditional approach to dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern Canada. Having a song duel is the traditional approach to dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern Canada. The goal is for social harmony to be restored rather than assigning and punishing guilt. The goal is for social harmony to be restored rather than assigning and punishing guilt.

10 Social Control through Law: In Western society, by contrast, someone who commits an offense against another person may become subject to a series of complex legal proceedings. In Western society, by contrast, someone who commits an offense against another person may become subject to a series of complex legal proceedings. –In criminal cases the primary concern is to assign and punish guilt rather than to help out the victim

11 Definition of Law: If every law is a sanction but not every sanction is a law, how are we to distinguish between social sanctions in general and those to which we apply the label “law”? If every law is a sanction but not every sanction is a law, how are we to distinguish between social sanctions in general and those to which we apply the label “law”? The definition of law has been a lively point of contention among anthropologists. The definition of law has been a lively point of contention among anthropologists. In 1926, Bronislaw Malinowski argued that the rules of law are distinguished from the rules of custom In 1926, Bronislaw Malinowski argued that the rules of law are distinguished from the rules of custom –his failure to distinguish adequately between legal and nonlegal sanctions left the problem of formulating a workable definition of law in the hands of later anthropologists.

12 Definition of Law: Ultimately, it is always of greatest value to consider each case within its cultural context. Ultimately, it is always of greatest value to consider each case within its cultural context. –After all, law reflects a society’s basic postulates, so to understand any society’s laws; one must understand the underlying values and assumptions. Law is adequately characterized as formal rules of conduct that, when violated, lead to negative sanctions. Law is adequately characterized as formal rules of conduct that, when violated, lead to negative sanctions.

13 Functions of Law There are three basic functions of law. There are three basic functions of law. –First, it defines relationships among society’s members and marks out proper behavior under specified circumstances. –Second, law allocates the authority to employ coercion in the enforcement of sanctions. –Third, law functions to redefine social relations and toe ensure social flexibility.

14 Functions of Law Law, if it is to operate efficiently, must allow room for change. Law, if it is to operate efficiently, must allow room for change. In practice, law is never as neat as a written description about it. In practice, law is never as neat as a written description about it. –In any given society, people are usually members of various subgroups, and fall under the varied dictates of these diverse groups.

15 Crime: In Western societies a clear distinction is made between offenses against the state and offenses against the individual. In Western societies a clear distinction is made between offenses against the state and offenses against the individual. In non-state societies such as bands and tribes, all offenses are viewed as transgressions against individuals of kin- groups. In non-state societies such as bands and tribes, all offenses are viewed as transgressions against individuals of kin- groups. The goal of judicial proceedings in such instances is restoring social harmony rather than punishing an offender The goal of judicial proceedings in such instances is restoring social harmony rather than punishing an offender

16 Settling Disputes First, disputing parties may, through argument and compromise, voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. First, disputing parties may, through argument and compromise, voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. –Negotiation: the use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive voluntarily at a mutually satisfactory agreement –Mediation: settlement of a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party

17 Settling Disputes Second, in chiefdoms and states, an authorized third party may issue a binding decision that the disputing parties will be compelled to respect. Second, in chiefdoms and states, an authorized third party may issue a binding decision that the disputing parties will be compelled to respect. –Adjudication: mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision. Often negotiation acts as a prerequisite or an alternative to adjudication. Often negotiation acts as a prerequisite or an alternative to adjudication.

18 Settling Disputes Among the Kpelle of Liberia, for example, when guilt is in doubt an “ordeal operator” licensed by the government may apply a hot knife to a suspect’s leg. Among the Kpelle of Liberia, for example, when guilt is in doubt an “ordeal operator” licensed by the government may apply a hot knife to a suspect’s leg. –As the knife is applied, once a judgment has been made, it is manipulated to either burn or not burn the suspect. This is similar to the use of lie detectors in the United States. This is similar to the use of lie detectors in the United States.

19 Restorative Justice and Conflict Resolution: Native communities have pressed especially for restorative justice techniques such as the Talking Circle, traditionally used by Native American groups. Native communities have pressed especially for restorative justice techniques such as the Talking Circle, traditionally used by Native American groups. In the United States, over the past three decades there has been significant movement away from courts in favor of outside negotiation and mediation to resolve a wide variety of disputes. In the United States, over the past three decades there has been significant movement away from courts in favor of outside negotiation and mediation to resolve a wide variety of disputes.

20 Restorative Justice and Conflict Resolution: In tribal and band societies, agreement is less likely to be coercive because all concerned individuals can negotiate and mediate on relatively equal terms. In tribal and band societies, agreement is less likely to be coercive because all concerned individuals can negotiate and mediate on relatively equal terms. The United States, by contrast, has great disparities in power, and evidence indicates that it is the stronger parties that prefer mediation and negotiation. The United States, by contrast, has great disparities in power, and evidence indicates that it is the stronger parties that prefer mediation and negotiation.

21 Question A method of resolving disputes in which the disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement is called A method of resolving disputes in which the disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement is called A.negotiation. B.mediation. C.adjudication. D.use of sanctions. E.law.

22 Answer: A A method of resolving disputes in which the disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement is called negotiation. A method of resolving disputes in which the disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement is called negotiation.

23 Question In _____________, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute. In _____________, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute. A.deception. B.the development of a court system. C.negotiation. D.mediation. E.adjudication.

24 Answer: E In adjudication, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute. In adjudication, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute.

25 Violent Conflict and Warfare: Although the regulation of internal affairs is an important function of any political system, it is by no means the sole function. Although the regulation of internal affairs is an important function of any political system, it is by no means the sole function. Another is the management of external affairs, relations not just among different states but among different bands, lineages, clans, or whatever the largest autonomous political unit may be. Another is the management of external affairs, relations not just among different states but among different bands, lineages, clans, or whatever the largest autonomous political unit may be. And just as the threatened or actual use of force may be used to maintain order within a society, it also may be used in the conduct of external affairs And just as the threatened or actual use of force may be used to maintain order within a society, it also may be used in the conduct of external affairs

26 Violent Conflict and Warfare: Organized violence in the form or war is responsible for enormous suffering and deliberate destruction of life and property. Organized violence in the form or war is responsible for enormous suffering and deliberate destruction of life and property. In the past 5,000 years or so, some 14,000 wars have been fought, resulting in many hundreds of millions of causalities. In the past 5,000 years or so, some 14,000 wars have been fought, resulting in many hundreds of millions of causalities.

27 Violent Conflict and Warfare: Generally, we may distinguish among different motives, objectives, methods, and scales or warfare as organized violence. Generally, we may distinguish among different motives, objectives, methods, and scales or warfare as organized violence. –Some societies engage in defensive wars only and avoid armed confrontations. –Others initiate aggressive wars to pursue particulate strategic objectives. –In some cultures, aggressive wars are waged for ideological reasons.

28 Why do wars occur? Some argue that males of the human species are naturally aggressive. Some argue that males of the human species are naturally aggressive. Others believe that warfare among humans, as well as aggressive group behavior among apes, may be situation specific rather than an unavoidable expression of biological predispositions Others believe that warfare among humans, as well as aggressive group behavior among apes, may be situation specific rather than an unavoidable expression of biological predispositions

29 Why do wars occur? We have ample reason to suppose that war has become a problem only in the last 10,000 years, since the invention of food-production techniques and especially since the formation of centralized states 5,000 years ago. We have ample reason to suppose that war has become a problem only in the last 10,000 years, since the invention of food-production techniques and especially since the formation of centralized states 5,000 years ago. It has reached crisis proportions in the past 200 years, with the invention of modern weaponry and increased direction of violence against civilian populations. It has reached crisis proportions in the past 200 years, with the invention of modern weaponry and increased direction of violence against civilian populations.

30 Warfare was all but unknown until recent times. There are several reasons for this There are several reasons for this –territorial boundaries and membership among food-foraging bands are usually fluid and loosely defined –systematic exchange of marriage partners among food-foraging groups –absence of food surplus among foragers makes prolonged combat difficult –worldview in which people perceive themselves as part of the natural world rather than superior to it

31 Warfare was all but unknown until recent times. It is among farmers and pastoralists that warfare becomes prominent. It is among farmers and pastoralists that warfare becomes prominent. –more exploitative worldview that do food foragers –more prone to population growth than are food foragers –Population growth can lead to resource depletion, one solution to which may be seizure of some other people’s resources –commitment to a fixed piece of land inherent in farming makes such societies somewhat less fluid

32 Violent Conflict and Warfare: Much (but not all) of the warfare that has been observed in recent stateless societies (so-called tribe warfare) has been induced by states as a reaction to colonial expansion. Much (but not all) of the warfare that has been observed in recent stateless societies (so-called tribe warfare) has been induced by states as a reaction to colonial expansion. –With the emergence of states has come a dramatic increase in the scale of warfare. –Many contemporary wars are not between states but often occur within countries where the government is either corrupt, ineffective, or without popular support.

33 Child Soldiers Today, there are more than 250,000 child soldiers, many as young as 12 years old. Among them are these boys training to be guerrillas in Sahel, Eritrea. Today, there are more than 250,000 child soldiers, many as young as 12 years old. Among them are these boys training to be guerrillas in Sahel, Eritrea.

34 Violent Conflict and Warfare: The following examples offer some specific data: The following examples offer some specific data: –Between 1975 and 1979, Khmer Rouge soldiers in Cambodia murdered 1.7 million fellow citizens, or 20% of that country’s population. –In the 1990s, between 2 and 3 million died due to warfare in the southern Sudan. –Between 1998 and million died in the war in Congo.


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