Presentation on theme: "Do-Now Tuesday, January 6 th Agenda Do-Now Homework."— Presentation transcript:
Do-Now Tuesday, January 6 th Agenda Do-Now Homework
A REPUBLICAN DECADE Presidents Waren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge – DOMESTIC & FOREIGN POLICIES
Quick Review Who was president during WWI? What party was he affiliated with? What happened in the US and abroad following WWI? … Why would people vote Republican then in 1921?
1920s Republicans controlled all 3 branches of government Presidents – Harding, Coolidge, Hoover Held majority in Congress Supreme Court – chief justice former President Taft
Harding – Foreign Policy Isolationism – rejected membership in League of Nations Disarmament – program where nations voluntarily gave up weapons Washington Conference Fordney-McCumber Tariff – raised import taxes discouraged imports that competed with American goods Tariff angers European countries trying to pay back debt; US government reduces its own debts. Dawes Plan- payment schedule for German reparations, reorganized German Bank, approved loan to Germany
Harding – Domestic Policy Nativism – favor native born Americans Due to Patriotism, Religion, Urban Conditions, Jobs, Red Scare Congress passes National Origins Act of 1924 – places quota on ethnic groups Introduced anti-lynching legislation & wanted to see All Americans treated as equals Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall secretly sold oil- drilling rights on government oil fields
Coolidge – Foreign Policies Kellogg-Briand Pact 15 nations pledged not to use the threat of war on one another More than 60 nations eventually join Had no provisions for enforcement
Coolidge – Domestic Policy Laissez-faire “The chief business of the American people is business” Lowered income & inheritance taxes Higher tariffs benefiting domestic manufacturing Did not regulate stock buying on easy credit Would not help victims of natural disasters
Republican Trends in 1920s Favored business Sought social stability Believed social stability fostered economic growth
Vocabulary Corresponds with page 1 in your packets
Socialism An economic and political philosophy Favors public (or “social”) control instead of private control of property and income Requires strong government regulation
Communism Official ideology of Soviet Union Complete government ownership of all means of production Lack of individual rights
Capitalism economic system in which property is privately owned and goods are privately produced sometimes referred to as the private enterprise system In this system, individuals can maximize profits because they own the means of production
Demobilization To disband military units, dispose of their equipment and return their personnel to civilian life, most notably after the end of a war Related: Disarmament Program in which nations of the world voluntarily give up their weapons
Red Scare Anti communism in the US in 1919 and 1920 which included a gov’t crackdown focusing on foreigners and labor unions Left-winged supporters became suspects Left-wing : radical, liberal, leaning toward socialism or political change to improve public well-being
Palmer Raids: Part of the postwar "Red Scare” Targeted foreign-born radicals Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer instructed agents of the Justice Department to raid offices and homes arrested thousands of people often without warrants destroyed property and conducting unlawful searches * With all this unconstitutionality, it is no coincidence that the American Civil Liberties Union was founded in the same year as the Palmer raids occurred.
Related: Quota A numerical limit Placed on different ethnic groups during 1920s so only an exact amount of people could enter the US from that particular country
Emma Goldman United States anarchist (born in Russia) who opposed conscription Deported to the Soviet Union in 1919 Known for her political activism, writing, and speeches
Isolationism Policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations Foreign policy after WWI in which U.S. refused to join the League of Nations or engage in diplomatic alliances lasted until U.S. entry into World War II
Teapot Dome Scandal Political scandal during Harding administration Involved granting oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money. Corruption; Tarnishes reputation of Harding administration
Kellogg-Briand Pact Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another 15 nations pledged not to use the threat of war on one another More than 60 nations eventually join Had no provisions for enforcement
Fordney-McCumber Tarriff Act raised import taxes discouraged imports that competed with American goods Tariff angers European countries trying to pay back debt; US government reduces its own debts.
American Plan A term that most U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions Promoted union-free open shops As a result, union membership in 1920 shrank from 5 million to some 3.6 million in 1923
Merger The combination of two or more companies, generally by offering the stockholders of one company securities in the acquiring company in exchange for the surrender of their stock.