Presentation on theme: "Monitoring and Responding to Biodiversity Loss: the Brazilian Experience João Paulo Ribeiro Capobianco, Executive Secretary, Brazilian Ministry of Environment."— Presentation transcript:
Monitoring and Responding to Biodiversity Loss: the Brazilian Experience João Paulo Ribeiro Capobianco, Executive Secretary, Brazilian Ministry of Environment OECD World Forum “Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies”
Brazil, a megadiverse country Currently about 70% of continental Brazil is still covered by natural ecosystems (~6 million km 2 ) About 30% of the world’s remaining natural forests are found in Brazil (~4.6 million km 2 ) About 15% of the world’s currently described species are found in Brazil Since most of the unknown species are found in the tropics, Brazil possibly holds as much as 25% of the world’s total biodiversity
Biodiversity: the unknown Currently about 200,000 species are known from Brazil A conservative estimate suggests this represents less than 10% of the total species richness of the country Current estimates put the total number of species on earth ranging from 1 to 100 million - an uncertainty of 2 orders of magnitude A recent study on the bacteria found on the forest canopy of our Atlantic Forest discovered that only 3% is known to science
Biodiversity: the science Brazil is currently responsible for about 6% of the science produced globally on biodiversity We hope to be producing over 10% of the global science on biodiversity in the near future The largest megadiverse country aims to be the leader on tropical biodiversity science
87% remaining Brazilian Savanna 60% remaining 40% remaining 7,5% remaining Map of Continental Biomes of Brazil Escale: 1: 5.000.000 IBGE & MMA
Biodiversity: Protected Areas In 2007 Brazil has a total over than 90 million ha in Protected Areas within the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC), of which 65 mi ha under the stewardship of the Federal Government, and 28 mi are under the stewardship of State Conservation Agencies. SNUC also includes municipal and private protected areas.
Federal CAs 679 units ~ 65 million ha 274 public 425 private 1.395 Conservation Units ~ 93 million ha 10,9% Brazilian Territory 452 public 264 private State CAs 716 units ~ 28 million ha Conservation Areas Brazil 2006
Biodiversity: Protected Areas Apart from the SNUC, Brazil has reserved over 110 million hectares as Indigenous Lands, which also play a key role as protected areas for biodiversity. Together, the SNUC and the Indigenous Lands cover more than 200 million hectares (or about 23% of the Brazilian Territory). Additionally, our Forestry Code requires each private property to set aside as Areas for Permanent Protection the natural vegetation along rivers, slopes, mountains and habitats for endangered species.
580 Indigenous Lands ~ 110 millions ha 11,58% Brazilian Territory Indigenous Lands - Brazil
Biodiversity: Threatened Species The current National List of Threatened Species of Fauna in Brazil (MMA Normative Instructions 3/2003 & 5/2004 + 52/2005) recognizes 633 species, including 395 species of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and terrestrials Invertebrates, and 238 species of Fishes and aquatic Invertebrates.
Biodiversity: Overexploited Species 56% of the marine fishery resources in Brazil are overexploited or fully exploited, varying from 34% in the northern coast to 84% in the southern coast. 47 species of Fishes and aquatic Invertebrates are officially recognized as overexploited at the national level.
Biodiversity: Alien Invasive Species The National Assessment of Alien Invasive Species completed in 2005 documents 284 species already established in Brazil and threatening its biodiversity, including 179 species in terrestrial ecosystems, 56 species in continental waters and 49 species in the marine zone.
GUIDELINES ADOPTED Enhancing Value of the Forest Forest and Extractivist Sector Prioritize the Best Use of Deforested Areas Prioritize the Best Use of Deforested Areas Agricultural Sector Land and Territorial Management Clear Rules Strategic Infrastructure Planning Transports Energy Environmental Monitoring and Control Efficiency and Efficacy Integrate Actions Society Participation
Receiving Station Cuiabá/MT Most current possible MODIS image Deforestation Database from previous years DETER (Real Time Deforestation Detection) PRODES Project INPE Processing: detection of new deforested areas Dissemination on the Internet Surveillance: situation room at IBAMA and other institutions
Changes in the land use arrangements in the Amazon Creation of 194,000 km2 of protected areas in conflict zones and expansion of the agricultural frontier; Presidential sanction 93,000 km2 of indigenous lands; Creation of 3,760 km2 of sustainable settlement projects; Suspension of 66,000 Rural Property Registration Certificates in 352 municipalities in 9 states of the Amazon; and Temporary Use Restriction for 80,000 km2 in the direct area of influence of the BR 163 Highway and for 150,000 km2 of the BR 319 Highway.
Evolution of the creation and projection of protected areas under the Plan of Action (ha) * Excluded 8,440,914 ha of National Forests created in indigenous lands
ConsolidatedEstimation Annual Deforestation Rate in the Amazon 1988- 2006
Biodiversity: Deforestation Since 1985 the Brazilian National Space Institute (INPE) monitors yearly clear-cut deforestation in the Amazon Forest (PRODES Project in partnership with IBAMA) [wall-to-wall, not samples] – data available at www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/ Since 1985 INPE in partnership with NGO SOS Mata Atlântica monitors every 5 years the Atlantic Forest [wall-to-wall, not samples] – data available at www.sosma.org.br/
Biodiversity: Wildfires & Burnings Since 1988 the Brazilian National Space Institute (INPE) in partnership with IBAMA monitors fires (hot pixels) on a daily basis covering the whole country, except NW Amazonia. data available: www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas/
Biodiversity: Vegetation Cover The Brazilian Ministry of Environment commissioned a wall-to-wall mapping of vegetation cover of all the Brazilian biomes for the baseline year of 2002 at the publication scale of 1:250.000 based on Landsat images (PROBIO Project in partnership with Brazilian research institutes and universities) – all the 610 maps produced are freely available online for download at www.mma.gov.br/PortalBiowww.mma.gov.br/PortalBio
Biodiversity: Vegetation Cover Since 2004 the Brazilian National Space Institute (INPE) has provided free download of the CBERS (China-Brazil) satellite images covering the whole country with images with a resolution of 20m. Currently there over 100 remote sensing labs in Brazil operating with CBERS, LANDSAT and other satellites images.
PROBIO – Studies on Impacts of Global Climate Change: Consolidation of basic climate surveys and databases for the 20th Century Regional Modeling of climate changes for the 21st Century – biome by biome Modeling the impacts of sea level elevation on the southern and southeastern coasts Testing bioindicators sensitive to climate parameters
National Reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity The First Brazilian Report to the CDB was published in 1998, in Portuguese and English. The Second Brazilian Report was submitted in 2002 and published in 2004, in Portuguese and English. The Third Brazilian Report was published in 2006, in Portuguese and English. These reports are available on the MMA website: www.mma.gov.br/Portalbio
National Biodiversity Targets for 2010 (CONABIO Resolution 3/2006): The National Biodiversity Committee – CONABIO adopted, as Resolution 3/2006, a set of 51 National Biodiversity Targets for 2010, including 14 targets for conservation, 13 targets for sustainable use, seven targets for impact mitigation, eight targets for access and benefit sharing, three targets for research, three targets for education and information and three targets for financing and technology transference. Available at www.mma.gov.br/PortalBio
Climate and Deforestation Positive incentives to reduce deforestation emissions in developing countries: views from Brazil
1. Objective Develop a new arrangement to provide positive financial incentives for developing countries that voluntarily reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation.
2. Premise Voluntary arrangement in the context of the UNFCCC Does not generate future obligations Does not count towards emissions reductions commitments of Annex I countries
Concept Overview Positive financial incentives for the net reduction of emissions from deforestation in developing countries relative to a reference emission rate (calculated according to a reference deforestation rate and its carbon stock content).
Concept – Quantifying the Incentive 1. Definition of the reference emission rate – Average rate of deforestation in a participating country on a time period to be defined Based on assessment of previous deforestation rates Periodically updated – Mean Carbon Stock per hectare per biome or vegetation type 2. Assessment of annual (or periodical) emissions from deforestation for comparison with the reference – Based on a transparent, consistent and scientifically-based monitoring deforestation system – Emissions are to be defined using standard values: Carbon tonnes per hectare, according to each biome or vegetation type.
Concept – Quantifying the Incentive 3. If emissions from deforestation have decreased, the difference is converted into a financial incentive to be received. 4. If emissions from deforestation have increased, the difference is converted into an amount to be subtracted (debit) from future financial incentives to be received. – The amount of the incentive per carbon tonne is to be calculated by a set amount to be reviewed periodically.
Concept – Quantifying the Incentive Reference Emission Rate Rate of emissions from Deforestation Credit Deficit System
Concept – Positive Incentive Arrangement 1. All the reduced emissions of a participating country are added together for a certain period. The amount of reduction of carbon emissions is converted into a monetary unit. 2. Developed countries voluntarily contribute with financial incentives, taking into account their obligations under the Convention (including Article 4.7). 3. The collected amount is divided among the participating developing countries in the same ratio as the emission reductions they have achieved.
Example Situation 1 – 3 countries submit their emission reductions from deforestation at time t (assuming 90 tC/ha): Country A: 150,000 ha => 13,500,000 Carbon tonnes Country B: 50,000 ha => 4,500,000 Carbon tonnes Country C: 200,000 ha => 18,000,000 Carbon tonnes – A reduction of 36 million Carbon tonnes requires a positive incentive of US$ 108 million, to be paid, voluntarily, by developed countries (assuming for example US$ 3/tC). – Countries receive proportionally: Country C: 50,0% Country A: 37,5% Country B: 12.5%
Biodiversity in Brazil Thank you for your attention. Contacts and Information at the Website: http://www.mma.gov.br/PortalBio