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Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Organic Certification Center of.

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Presentation on theme: "Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Organic Certification Center of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Jerry “Jing” E. Pacturan Organic Certification Center of the Philippines, Inc. Philippine Development Assistance Programme, Inc.

2 Outline of Presentation BackgroundBackground -Drivers for quality & food safety -Why certification programs exist -What is certification –Basic types of certification Overview of Voluntary Certification SystemsOverview of Voluntary Certification Systems -Environmental certification -Environmental certification -Social certification -Food safety & good practice certification -Certification for intrinsic food quality Organic CertificationOrganic Certification

3 Drivers for product quality and food safety Consumer demandsConsumer demands Environmental concernsEnvironmental concerns Health concernsHealth concerns Social concernsSocial concerns Government requirements for international tradingGovernment requirements for international trading

4 Why certification programs exist? It brings opportunities to producers/farmers (e.g., market access, protection of local resources, improvement of worker’s health & living conditions of rural communities.) Growing market/consumer awareness of the social & environmental problems associated with food production, processing & trade Safe and quality products ensure consumer health

5 What is Certification? It is a procedure for verifying that products conform to certain standards, either mandatory/compulsory or voluntarily. In the case of organic products, it is primarily the acknowledgement that such products have been produced according to the applicable organic production standards.

6 Basic types of certification Mandatory or Compulsory (public) When products are sold to mainstream domestic market or exported, national governments & exporting countries normally require standards & certification as part of food safety regulations (e.g., MRLs on pesticides use,Product Traceability). Voluntary (private) Decision to adhere to standards & apply for certification is mainly a decision of the producing group for environmental, social, cultural, food safety purposes.

7 Voluntary Certification Systems (for agriculture and food products ) Environmental certification Organic agriculture ISO 14001 certification Social certification Fair trade Social Accountability 8000 (SA8000) Food safety and good practice certification Good agricultural practices (GAP) Good manufacturing practice (GMP) Certification for intrinsic quality (cultural) Geographical indications (GI) Halal

8 ISO 14001 (International Standards Organization) ISO is a private int’l network of national standard institutes working with governments, industry & consumer representatives ISO 14001 is designed to help environmental mgt systems of organizations both in public & private sectors based on government environmental regulations Granted either b y governmental or private certification agencies ISO logo can’t be use on products; companies can however indicate in their promotional campaign they are ISO certified Certification quite expensive and there’s no price premium for products

9 FAIR TRADE Based on the fair remuneration of producers. Products have premium price which enables producers to support themselves & invest in community development Producers comply with standards notably labor rights, environmental and social requirements Standard setting & certification under the control of Fairtrade Labeling Organizations Int’l. or FLO Once certified, regular inspections are done annually to check compliance and use of fair trade premium Key constraint – FLO certifies if it finds market for the fair-trade labeled products, usually in fair trade shops

10 SA 8000 Social Accountability Int’l is an NGO that promotes SA8000 A voluntary private workplace certification program aimed at creating better working conditions Based on int’l. workplace norms including social justice, worker rights & working conditions Some very large firms exporting banana, pineapple, tobacco, wine, canned fruits & processed coffee are SA8000 certified Certification mark is not used on product labels but companies may use it for promotional activities No price premium for products of certified companies

11 GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) GAP are practices that address environmental, economic & social sustainability for on-farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products Developed by the food industry, producer organizations, governments & NGOs, aiming to codify agricultural practices at farm level GAP benefits are: -food quality & safety improvement -facilitating market access -reduction in non-compliance risks re. permitted pesticides, MRLs & other contamination hazards Main challenges: -increase in production cost like recordkeeping, residue testing & certification -Inadequate access to information and support services

12 GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) International Food Standards (IFS) certification developed by German retailers in 2002 and later joined by French food retailers Safe Quality Food (SQF) codes developed by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture in 1996 British Retail Consortium (BRC) standards were developed to comply with the UK Food Safety Act ISO 22000 harmonizes the requirements of national food safety management systems worldwide on a non-governmental, voluntary basis

13 GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS (GI) A private voluntary standard that has been registered by a producers group or local government authority through national agencies in-charge of intellectual property GIs are seal of quality which helps to promote know-how, tradition, diversity and quality for raw produce and processed foods Product comes from a determined geographic area An appropriate marketing tool for regional & international trade of characteristic local products Existing Asian GIs – Vietnam’s Bien Thuan Dragon Fruit & Phu Quoc Fish Sauce; Thailand’s Doi Tung Coffee; China’s Longjing Tea

14 HALAL Halal is an Arabic word that means lawful and refers to things or actions permitted by Islamic law Covers food & non-food; in food it is used to describe something that a Muslim is allowed to eat, drink or use All inputs, products, tools, machinery, labour used in production, processing, storage & distribution are separated from anything that is “Haram” Halal market is estimated at US$150 billion Standards differ from country to country; Malaysian certification becoming an international benchmark Certificate granted by Islamic centers but proliferation of many local certifying authorities raises concern about enforcement challenges

15 Organic Certification What is organic agriculture? A production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. It combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. (IFOAM 2008,

16 Organic Certification ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRINCIPLES (IFOAM) Principle of HealthPrinciple of Health  sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible Principle of EcologyPrinciple of Ecology  based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them Principle of FairnessPrinciple of Fairness  build on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities Principle of CarePrinciple of Care  managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well- being of current and future generations and the environment

17 Organic Certification Is there a need for organic certification? When organic farmers and traders are operating in an anonymous market, certification is developed to show and guarantee to consumers that a product has been produced in consistency with organic standards. For small farmers/producers - when there is surplus & scale that that warrants new markets, certification becomes important.

18 Organic Certification Balance of interests CONSUMER requires healthy and environmentally sound products and is willing to pay premium price Trust FARMER/PROCESSOR is producing according to certain standards (may be putting higher labour, etc.) is getting access to premium price markets

19 Organic Certification What is organic certification… –A procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a product, process or service is in conformity with certain standards –Intended to assure quality and prevent fraud –A marketing initiative aimed at regulating and facilitating the sale of organic products to consumers

20 Organic Certification What is a Certification Body… –The organization performing the certification –Might do the actual inspection or contract the inspection to an inspector or inspector body –Certification decision is based on the inspection report, compliance with the standards, farm documentation and possibly complemented by other information sources as provided by the applicant

21 Organic Certification Government –Europe (EU regulation EEC2092/91) –US (USDA-NOP) –Japan (JAS) –Canada –Australia –Thailand –India –China Private Initiative –IFOAM ( –Assurance system is based on IFOAM norms (includes the IFOAM basic standard and IFOAM accreditation criteria) –CertAll

22 Organic Certification Levels or Types of Certification First Party Verification –The producer with installed internal control system claims that the farm is organic –The system exist in areas or communities where the producer and consumer know each other –Farm or processing activity is open for consumer inspection –Example is the Participatory Guarantee System (PGS)

23 Organic Certification Levels or Types of Certification Second Party Verification –Occurs when the consumer verifies the production system and farmer/processor adheres to the standard set by the consumers –Consumers inspect the farms before a marketing agreement and activity takes place –This type of guarantee system sits in a situation where there exist an organized consumer and producer group –Example is the Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)

24 Organic Certification Levels or Types of Certification Third Party Certification –Is done by a third party without direct interest in the economic relationship between the supplier and the buyer –The certification is the formal and documented procedure by which a third party assures that the organic production standards are followed

25 Organic Certification Third Party Certification For two basic types of clients – –Individual farm or processing enterprise –Group certification through the installation of the Internal Control System (ICS) ICS is part of the documented quality assurance system that allows the external certification body to delegate the periodical inspection of individual group members to an identified body or unit within the certified operator

26 Organic Certification Certification Requirement/Processes Study the organic standards Compliance to the standards Documentation and record keeping (day to day farming and marketing records and other activities) Planning –written annual production plan Application Inspection Fees (need for costing and scale for cost recovery)

27 What must be certified? Farmer Processor Trader Transporter Exporter Shipping transporter RetailerConsumer *Those shaded in blue needs organic agriculture certification Organic Certification

28 Certification Process for Individual Farm or Processor Applicant apply for certification Fill out forms and sign contracts Certification Comm. assigns inspector Inspector inspects the farm/processing plant Farm walk Check inputs and its sources Check documentation Exit meeting Inspection report to be submitted to Certification Committee Certification Committee deliberation Release of Certification Decision Organic Certification

29 Certification Process for Smallholder Group Applicant apply for certification Fill out forms and sign contracts Certification Comm. assigns inspector Inspector inspects the internal control system of the organization Farm walk (random sampling) Check inputs and its sources Check documentation Exit meeting Inspection report to be submitted to Certification Committee Certification Committee deliberation Release of Certification Decision Organic Certification

30 OCCP Certification Costs Validity & Cost of Certification  Validity of certificate – 12 months subject for renewal For local certification Application fee – Php 2,000.00 (about US$42) Minimum certification fee –Php 20,000 – producer (US$420) –Php 20,000 – processor (US$420) –Php 40,000 – production & processing (US$840) –Php 25,000 – group certification (US$520) Inspection fee is Php 5,000 per day (US$104) For foreign certification (in partnership with CERES of Germany) Application fee – Euro 100 Minimum certification fee –Euro 1,000.00 for individual farms/processors –Euro 1,200 for group certification Inspection fee is Euro 100 per day

31 Independent, Non-stock, membership based, standard setting and organic certification body Trained by Bio-Swiss, Bio-Inspecta, Fibl and CERES Accredited by the DA-BAFPS in December 2004. Currently with 19 inspectors (8 passed the international inspectors training) About OCCP

32 IFOAM member Philippine Fair Trade Forum (PFTF) Member Accreditation to Korea Member of Certification Alliance International Certifying Body Partners -CERES GmbH (Germany) -ICEA (Italy) -ACT (Thailand) About OCCP

33 Organic Certification Program - Organic Standard Development - Organic Farm certification - Organic Livestock certification - Organic Processing certification - Smallholder group certification About OCCP Research, Policy and Advocacy - Technical and social research - Local and national policy on organic agriculture - Advocacy and promotion of certified organic products Services

34  Products that were certified by OCCP -Rice- Garlic -Fruits- Lemongrass oil -Virgin coconut oil- Cooking oil -Coconut vinegar- Herbal plants -Henna- Wild herbal plants -Vegetables- Coconut About OCCP

35 OCCP Seal

36 Thank you !!! Maraming salamat po!!!

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