Presentation on theme: "PSYC 550 Biological Bases of Behavior Emotions and Learning."— Presentation transcript:
PSYC 550 Biological Bases of Behavior Emotions and Learning
Emotions as Response Pattern medial nucleus –A group of subuclei of the amygdala that receives sensory input, including information about the presence of odors and pheromones, and relays it to the medial basal forebrain and hypothalamus. lateral nucleus (LA) –A nucleus of the amygdala that receives sensory information from the neocortex, thalamus, and hippocampus and send projections to the basal, accessory basal, and central nucleus of the amygdala. central nucleus (CE) –The region of the amygdala that receives information from the basal, lateral, and accessory basal nuclei and sends projections to a wide variety of regions in the brain; involved in emotional responses.
Emotions as Response Pattern conditioned emotional response –A classically conditioned response that occurs when a neutral stimulus is followed by an aversive stimulus; usually includes autonomic, behavioral, and endocrine components such as changes in heart rate, freezing, and secretion of stress-related hormones. threat behavior –A stereotypical species-typical behavior that warns another animal that it may be attacked if it does not flee or show a submissive behavior. defensive behavior –A species-typical behavior by which an animal defends itself against the threat of another animal.
Emotions as Response Pattern submissive behavior –A stereotypical behavior show by an animal in response to threat behavior by another animal; serves to prevent an attack. predation –Attack of one animal directed at an individual of another species on which the attacking animal normally preys.
Emotions as Response Pattern orbitofrontal cortex –The region of the prefrontal cortex at the base of the anterior frontal lobes, just above the orbits of the eyes. ventromedial prefrontal cortex –The region of the prefrontal cortex at the base of the anterior frontal lobes, adjacent to the midline.
Communication of Emotions volitional facial paresis –Difficulty in moving the facial muscles voluntarily; caused by damage to the face region of the primary motor cortex or its subcortical connections. emotional facial paresis –Lack of movement of facial muscles in response to emotions in people who have no difficulty moving these muscles voluntarily; caused by damage to the insular prefrontal cortex, subcortical white matter of the frontal lobe, or parts of the thalamus.
The Nature of Learning perceptual learning –Learning to recognize a particular stimulus. stimulus-response learning –Learning to automatically make a particular response in the presence of a particular stimulus; includes classical and instrumental conditioning.
The Nature of Learning classical conditioning Hebb rule –The hypothesis proposed by Donald Hebb that the cellular basis of learning involves strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the postsynaptic neuron fires.
The Nature of Learning instrumental conditioning –A learning procedure whereby the effects of a particular behavior in a particular situation increase (reinforce) or decrease (punish) the probability of the behavior; also called operant conditioning. reinforcing stimulus –An appetitive stimulus that follows a particular behavior and thus makes the behavior become more frequent. punishing stimulus –An aversive stimulus that follows a particular behavior and thus makes the behavior become less frequent. motor learning –Learning to make a new response.
Synaptic Plasticity: Long- Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression long-term potentiation (LTP) –A long-term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated high-frequency activity. hippocampal formation –A forebrain structure of the temporal lobe, constituting an important part of the limbic system; includes the hippocampus proper (Ammon’s horn), dentate gyrus, and subiculum. entorhinal cortex –A region of the limbic cortex that provides the major source of input to the hippocampal formation.
Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression dentate gyrus –Part of the hippocampal formation; receives inputs from the entorhinal cortex and projects to the filed CA3 of the hippocampus. perforant path –The system of axons that travel from cells in the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. field CA3 –Part of the hippocampus; receives input from the dentate gyrus and projects to the field CA1. pyramidal cell –A category of large neurons with a pyramid shape; found in the cerebral cortex and Ammon’s horn of the hippocampal formation.
Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression field CA1 –Part of the hippocampus; receives inputs from field CA3 and projects out of the hippocampal formation via the subiculum. population EPSP –An evoked potential that represents the EPSPs of a population of neurons. associative long-term potentiation –A long-term potentiation in which concurrent stimulation of weak and strong synapses to a given neuron strengthens the weak ones. NMDA receptor –A specialized ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a calcium channel that is normally blocked by Mg 2+ ions; involved in long-term potentiation.
Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression nitric oxide synthase –An enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide. long-term depression (LTD) –A long-term decrease in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by stimulation of the terminal button while the postsynaptic membrane is hyperpolarized of only slightly depolarized.
Perceptual Learning short-term memory –Memory for a stimulus or an event that lasts for a short while. delayed matching-to-sample task –A task that requires the subject to indicate which of several stimuli has just been perceived.
Instrumental Conditioning and Motor Learning medial forebrain bundle (MFB) –A fiber bundle that runs in a rostral-caudal direction though the basal forebrain and lateral hypothalamus; electrical stimulation of these axons is reinforcing. ventral tegmental area (VTA) –A group of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain whose axons form the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems; plays a role in reinforcement. nucleus accumbens –A nucleus of the basal forebrain near the septum; receives dopamine-secreting terminal buttons from neurons of the ventral tegmental area and is thought to be involved in reinforcement and attention.
Relational Learning anterograde amnesia –Amnesia for events that occur after some disturbance to the brain, such as head injury or certain degenerative brain diseases. retrograde amnesia –Amnesia for events that preceded some disturbance to the brain, such as a head injury or electroconvulsive shock. Korsakoff’s syndrome –Permanent anterograde amnesia caused by brain damage resulting from chronic alcoholism or malnutrition. confabulation –The reporting of memories of events that did not take place without the intention to deceive; seen in people with Korsakoff’s syndrome.
Relational Learning perirhinal cortex –A region of limbic cortex adjacent to the hippocampal formation that, along with the parahippocampal cortex, relays information between the enthorhinal cortex and other regions of the brain. parahippocampal cortex –A region of limbic cortex adjacent to the hippocampal formation that, along with the perirhinal cortex, relays information between the entorhinal cortex and other regions of the brain.
Relational Learning episodic memory –Memory of a collection of perceptions of events organized in time and identified be a particular context. semantic memory –A memory of facts and general information. semantic dementia –Loss of semantic memories caused by progressive degeneration of the neocortex of the lateral temporal lobes.
LTP seems to be dependent on the presence of: 10 1.cortisol 2.dopamine 3.glutamate 4.vasopressin
Which part of the brain is best known for identifying social emotions? 10 1.TEO 2.Amygdala 3.Orbitofrontal cortex 4.Hippocampus
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