Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault – MCASA 2007.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault – MCASA 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault – MCASA 2007

2 Objectives Define Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) Define Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) List possible Date Rape drugs List possible Date Rape drugs Identify possible DFSA Cases Identify possible DFSA Cases Develop DFSA Investigation strategies Develop DFSA Investigation strategies

3 “I had two drinks, but then I blacked out. That has never happened to me” “I had two drinks, but then I blacked out. That has never happened to me”

4 A May 2006 study found… Almost 62 percent of sexual assaults were found to be drug facilitated, Almost 62 percent of sexual assaults were found to be drug facilitated, and almost 5 percent of the victims were given classic 'date- rape' drugs and almost 5 percent of the victims were given classic 'date- rape' drugs

5 Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Relatively new term Relatively new term Definitely not a new issue Definitely not a new issue Original and ongoing drug of choice: Original and ongoing drug of choice: alcohol alcohol

6 Defined Victims is subjected to non-consensual sexual act(s) while incapacitated by alcohol and/or drugs Victims is subjected to non-consensual sexual act(s) while incapacitated by alcohol and/or drugs Effect of the substance(s) prevents resistance and ability to consent Effect of the substance(s) prevents resistance and ability to consent Prevalence is not known Prevalence is not known

7 Perpetrators Myth: it is only Stranger in the club or singles bar Myth: it is only Stranger in the club or singles bar Reality is: Reality is: Perpetrator could be a date or a trusted “friend” Perpetrator could be a date or a trusted “friend” Health care provider in a medical setting Health care provider in a medical setting Could be a neighbor Could be a neighbor

8 Common Occurrences In some cases the substances are taken voluntarily by the victims, impairing their ability to make decisions In some cases the substances are taken voluntarily by the victims, impairing their ability to make decisions It is so common for boys/men to encourage a woman to drink heavily in order to “hit that”; many people do not recognize this as a crime It is so common for boys/men to encourage a woman to drink heavily in order to “hit that”; many people do not recognize this as a crime

9 In other cases the substances are given to the victims without their knowledge, which may decrease their ability to identify a dangerous situation or to resist the perpetrator. In other cases the substances are given to the victims without their knowledge, which may decrease their ability to identify a dangerous situation or to resist the perpetrator. They can even make it seem as though the victim is consenting, ie. allowing the sexual advances of their attacker. They can even make it seem as though the victim is consenting, ie. allowing the sexual advances of their attacker.

10 Planning Many, many repeat offenders – WHY? Many, many repeat offenders – WHY? Drugs used often cause rapid loss of ability to walk – implications if you are the perp? Drugs used often cause rapid loss of ability to walk – implications if you are the perp? Plan the assault very near the location of the drugging Plan the assault very near the location of the drugging Target someone who can be easily “carried” home – The Rescuer, the helper Target someone who can be easily “carried” home – The Rescuer, the helper

11 Sometimes Perpetrators take “trophies” Perpetrators take “trophies” May video tape, photograph the act May video tape, photograph the act Most times the act is planned Most times the act is planned Shows little remorse Shows little remorse Denies he did anything wrong; or may be remorseful with victim afterward Denies he did anything wrong; or may be remorseful with victim afterward May be more than one perpetrator May be more than one perpetrator Younger perps/college settings Younger perps/college settings

12 Profile Are these perpetrators generally organized or disorganized? Are these perpetrators generally organized or disorganized? High functioning High functioning Grandiose, self-absorbed Grandiose, self-absorbed Narcissistic Narcissistic Appear to be functioning well Appear to be functioning well Two groups Two groups College students College students Men > 30 years of age Men > 30 years of age Often single (never married or divorced) Often single (never married or divorced)

13 One Modus operandi Good verbal social skills Charming Can quickly establish “trust” “Wine and dine” In the morning, dares her to tell someone Victim may have voluntarily consumed to some type of illicit drug use

14 Modus operandi Usually not psychiatrically ill Usually not psychiatrically ill Usually not drunk or stoned Usually not drunk or stoned Very much in control of the situation Very much in control of the situation Usually not violent, Usually not violent, Often makes NO effort to hide identity Often makes NO effort to hide identity

15 Modus operandi Perpetrators may live out their fantasies Perpetrators may live out their fantasies Anal sex Anal sex Ejaculate onto victim’s face, into the mouth Ejaculate onto victim’s face, into the mouth Shave the victim Shave the victim Dress the victim up in “special” clothes Dress the victim up in “special” clothes

16 DFSA v Coercive Rapist General lack of violence General lack of violence Clothes not torn off Clothes not torn off No mutilation No mutilation No threats prior to the rape – maybe a threat afterwards that no one will believe her No threats prior to the rape – maybe a threat afterwards that no one will believe her DFSA have superb verbal skills DFSA have superb verbal skills

17 Two Common Presentations Complete “loss of consciousness” Complete “loss of consciousness” I passed out…I was gone. He could have sawed me in half and I would not know it I passed out…I was gone. He could have sawed me in half and I would not know it Fragmented memory – brief, intermittent periods of visual and/or auditory memories Fragmented memory – brief, intermittent periods of visual and/or auditory memories I was awake some of the time but I couldn’t move. I couldn’t talk I was awake some of the time but I couldn’t move. I couldn’t talk

18 Victim Interview Victim may remember little or nothing. Victim may remember little or nothing. There may be many “holes” in the story There may be many “holes” in the story Their uncertainty may cause extreme anxiety Their uncertainty may cause extreme anxiety

19 Victim Interviews Keep in mind: a victim whose memory is impaired due to the pharmacological effect of a drug, may innocently and unconsciously seek facts to fill in the gaps in her memory. Avoid suggestive questioning It is very important to have the victim articulate how they felt or what they had been doing prior to losing consciousness.

20 Common Presentation memory loss, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, slurred speech, impaired motor skills, impaired judgment, reduced inhibition variety of other symptoms. The victim may also appear intoxicated or "hung-over".

21 Witness Statements Although the victim statement is crucial to the investigation, persons who saw the victim, or spoke to the victim, before, during and after the assault are critical witnesses. Often, it is such witnesses who establish time frames, notice unusual behavior, provide critical facts and can identify potential sources of information.

22 Potential Evidence drugs, ingredients used to make drugs, drug-related literature and recipes, Internet correspondence, Drug packaging and bottles, photographs and video tapes of victims -- might be located in the suspect's residence, vehicle, place of employment, locker, etc.

23 Common DFSA Drugs Common DFSA Drugs

24 Alcohol CNS depressant CNS depressant Depresses all body functions Depresses all body functions Easily tested and found in blood Easily tested and found in blood Have to have high concentration to get the desired effect Have to have high concentration to get the desired effect

25 Alcohol mixed with other Drugs DFSA cases DFSA cases Barbituates Barbituates Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Antihistamines Antihistamines Tricyclic antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants Marijuana Marijuana GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) Narcotics Narcotics

26 Benzodiazepines Around since the 1950s Around since the 1950s Libriumchlordiazepoxide Libriumchlordiazepoxide Xanaxalprazolam Xanaxalprazolam Tranxeneclorazepate Tranxeneclorazepate Valiumdiazapam Valiumdiazapam Dalmaneflurazepam Dalmaneflurazepam Halciontriazolam Halciontriazolam Restoriltemazepam Restoriltemazepam

27 Rohypnol Rohypnol – flunitrazepam Rohypnol – flunitrazepam Ten times more potent than diazapam Ten times more potent than diazapam Marketed legally since 1970s in Europe, South America and Asia Marketed legally since 1970s in Europe, South America and Asia Never submitted the FDA for approval in the United States Never submitted the FDA for approval in the United States

28 Rohypnol Roofies Roofies R Date rape drug Date rape drug LaRocha (Hoffman – LaRoche) LaRocha (Hoffman – LaRoche)

29 Rohypnol Half-life is one day Half-life is one day Clinical effects are much shorter Clinical effects are much shorter Fast acting drug Fast acting drug Kicks in within an hour Kicks in within an hour Clinical effects several hours Clinical effects several hours Strong AMNESIA effect Strong AMNESIA effect

30 Rohypnol Can be found in blood and urine Can be found in blood and urine 1999 study: Of 1033 samples only six had flunitrazapam 1999 study: Of 1033 samples only six had flunitrazapam While 40% had alcohol While 40% had alcohol Several hot spots in the country Several hot spots in the country Florida Florida Minneapolis Minneapolis Southern California Southern California

31 GHB gamma-hydroxybutyric acid gamma-hydroxybutyric acid Used clinically as an anesthetic and hypnotic agent since 1960s Used clinically as an anesthetic and hypnotic agent since 1960s GHB can be readily synthesized in your home GHB can be readily synthesized in your home

32 GHB Often an off-white powder Often an off-white powder Colorless liquid Colorless liquid Mild caramel odor Mild caramel odor Used by Body Builders Used by Body Builders Used voluntarily for a euphoric high Used voluntarily for a euphoric high

33 GHB Internet recipes Internet recipes GBL (industrial solvent) and sodium hydoxide GBL (industrial solvent) and sodium hydoxide Differing concentrations will vary CNS effects Differing concentrations will vary CNS effects Ideal concentration is about 20% Ideal concentration is about 20% Can be dried to powder and packed into capsules Can be dried to powder and packed into capsules

34 “The Party's Never Over: While the days of THC are past, the days of ecstasy and GHB are peaking”

35 GHB Rapidly absorbed and eliminated minutes Rapidly absorbed and eliminated minutes Serum levels can be obtained up to about 8 hours Serum levels can be obtained up to about 8 hours Urine specimen up to 12 hours Urine specimen up to 12 hours Victim’s rarely make it to the hospital in this amount of time. Victim’s rarely make it to the hospital in this amount of time. If DFSA is suspected time is of the essence! If DFSA is suspected time is of the essence!

36 GHB GEasy lay GEasy lay ScoopLiquid X ScoopLiquid X Grievous Bodily Harm Grievous Bodily Harm Liquid E Liquid E Salty Water Salty Water

37 Other Common Drugs in DFSA Ketamine Ketamine RAVE – Dance Parties RAVE – Dance Parties Psilocybin – mushrooms, LSD Psilocybin – mushrooms, LSD MDMA – hallucinogenic, stimulant (Ectasy) MDMA – hallucinogenic, stimulant (Ectasy) Number one RAVE drug Number one RAVE drug Dilated pupils, bounding energy, increased HR, BP Dilated pupils, bounding energy, increased HR, BP Often imported from Europe Often imported from Europe Sextasy MDNA taken with a Viagra Sextasy MDNA taken with a Viagra Bounding energy with 3 to 4 hour erection Bounding energy with 3 to 4 hour erection

38 Ketamine K Special K Special K Vitamin K Vitamin K Legitimate veterinarian tranquilizer Legitimate veterinarian tranquilizer Pediatric anethesia Pediatric anethesia

39 MDMA 3,4- methlenedioxymethamph etamine 3,4- methlenedioxymethamph etamine Ecstasy Ecstasy X XTC XTC E Hug Drug Hug Drug

40 Ask about the Lab Test DFSA labs should be sent to a special lab, often the FBI lab. Normal hospital drug screens do not cover many DFSA drugs. DFSA labs should be sent to a special lab, often the FBI lab. Normal hospital drug screens do not cover many DFSA drugs. Generally blood and urine depending on the timeframe. Generally blood and urine depending on the timeframe. Ask the forensic nurse for clarification Ask the forensic nurse for clarification

41 Questions??? Questions???


Download ppt "Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Maryland Coalition Against Sexual Assault – MCASA 2007."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google